Submitted to: American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2004
Publication Date: 5/1/2004
Citation: Kruzich, L.A., Marquis, G.S., Wilson, C.M., Stephensen, C.B. 2004. Hiv-infected u.s. youth are at high risk of obesity and poor dietary quality: a challenge for improving short- and long-term health outcomes. American Dietetic Association. Vol.104 N.10:1554-1560. Interpretive Summary: Overweight and obesity are common nutrition problems for HIV-infected youth who are at increased risk of developing metabolic abnormalities. Nutrition education should focus on helping youth improve their diet and increase physical activity to reduce health consequences associated with both obesity and HIV infection.
Technical Abstract: Objective This study examined the relationships among dietary quality, weight status, and HIV infection in U.S. adolescents and young adults. Design This cross-sectional study of dietary intake included the REACH cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, at-risk youth. Biochemical, clinical, and sociodemographic data were available. Dietary intake was collected using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (98.2) and a modified Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was calculated to measure dietary quality. Subjects/setting: Participants included 248 HIV-infected and 116 HIV-uninfected youth 13 to 23 y old (73% female; 67% black/non-Hispanic) at 14 clinic sites.Statistical analyses performed The analyses used 2 test, Student's t-tests, Pearson's correlation, ANOVA, and logistic and generalized linear regression. Results: About half (51.7%) of the participants were overweight or obese. Obesity was positively associated with being female, living independently, watching television 3 hr/d, previous dieting, and being from the Northeast or South. Youth who were HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected with CD4+ T-cells 500 cells/ L had similar obesity rates; overweight (25%) and obesity (20%) was prevalent among females even with CD4+ T-cells < 200. The modified HEI was 56.2 0.6 reflecting a poor quality diet. HIV-infection, watching television 3 hr/d, and being from the Chicago area were associated with a lower quality diet. Applications/conclusions Overweight and obesity are common nutrition problems for HIV-infected youth who are at increased risk of developing metabolic abnormalities. Nutrition education should focus on helping youth improve their diet and increase physical activity to reduce health consequences associated with both obesity and HIV infection.