Submitted to: Journal of Cereal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2003
Publication Date: 3/15/2003
Citation: Kim, W., Johnson, J.W., Graybosch, R.A., Gaines, C.S. 2003. Physicochemical properties and end-use quality of wheat starch as a function of waxy protein alleles. Journal of Cereal Science. 37(2):195-204.
Interpretive Summary: Some wheat varieties can have starch that has an unusual composition and is refered to as "waxy" wheat. Eight waxy soft wheats were studied by evaluating their flour and starch quality characteristics. The wheats differed concerning just how strongly they genetically expressed their waxiness. Waxy wheats also were differenct in their milling and baking qualities as well as in other predictive quality tests, even though the protein concentration was not significantly different. For instance, the typical waxy starch showed higher starch crystallinity then non-waxy starches. Waxy starches showed higher peak hot pasting viscosity at lower peak temperatures than regular starch. Therefore, waxy wheat may not be suitable for current applications of soft wheat products. However, distinct properties of waxy starch may open the possibility of commercial use in novel applications and may be a good source of variation for specific end-use products.
Technical Abstract: Soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Quality tests (milling and baking quality) and starch characteristics (amylose concentration, X-ray diffractograms, thermal properties and pasting properties) were determined for eight granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS: waxy protein) genotypes in a soft wheat background. Lines carrying two null alleles showed reduced amylose concentrations relative to those of single null and wild-type lines. Milling and baking quality traits were clearly different between waxy (triple null) and the other genotypes. Waxy lines showed the highest alkaline water retention (AWRC) capacity; even though, the protein concentration was not significantly different from some double null and single null lines. The typical A-type patterns of X-ray diffractograms were observed for all starches. Waxy starch showed higher crystallinity than non-waxy stanches. Analysis by Rapid Viscoanalyser (RVA) showed distinctive differences among the eight genotypes. Waxy starches showed higher peak viscosity, lower peak temperature and shorter pack time than those of all other genotypes. The results suggest that baking quality of waxy wheat can not be predicted by either AWRC or protein concentration. The interactions based on biochemical analysis between protein and other fractions (amylose and amylopectin, damaged starch) of partially and fully waxy wheat flours must be assessed before baking quality can be predicted. Furthermore, waxy wheat may not be suitable for current application of soft wheat products; however, distinct properties of waxy starch may open the possibility of commercial use in novel applications. Also, double null and single null genotypes may be a good source of variation of specific end-use products.