Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/2/2004
Publication Date: 4/4/2004
Citation: Moreau, R.A., Lampi, A., Hicks, K.B. High phytosterol oils from corn fiber and barley. Meeting Abstract. 95th AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo., Cincinnati, OH, May 9-12, 2004, Session PRO 4 Processing of Specialty Oils, Oral Paper 2.
Technical Abstract: All commercial vegetable oils contain phytosterols and the levels of phytosterols in all are less than 1%. To consume enough phytosterols to significantly reduce serum cholesterol levels (1-3 grams), one would need to consume at least 100 grams (~900 calories) of oil per day, an amount that is impractical and unhealthy. We have found that oils extracted from some grains and grain-processing fractions contain much higher levels of phytosterols than commercial vegetable oils. Corn fiber oil and barley kernel oil contain 10-15% and 3-5% of total phytosterols, respectively. The phytosterols in corn fiber oil are comprised of three lipids classes (free phytosterols, fatty acyl phytosteryl esters and hydroxycinnamate phytosteryl esters), whereas barley kernel oil contains only free phytosterols and fatty acyl phytosteryl esters. Unfortunately, the yields of oil from both corn fiber and barley kernels are very low (1-2%), so oils obtained by extracting these feedstocks are costly. Recent studies revealed that oil yields of 5-7% could be achieved when extracting the 'pearling dust' of some new cultivars of hull-less barley. The composition of this 'barley pearling dust oil' was nearly identical to the composition of barley kernel oil (3-5% total phytosterols). These studies have demonstrated that it is feasible to produce high phytosterol vegetable oils by these alternate processing routes. Efforts will also be focused on evaluating the economics of these processes.