Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/29/2004
Publication Date: 8/1/2004
Citation: Lee, S., Inglett, G.E., Carriere, C.J. 2004. Effect of Nutrim OB and flaxseed on the rheological properties of cakes. Cereal Chemistry. 81(5):37-642. Interpretive Summary: Obesity in the United States has become a major health issue. Improvements to the diet of the U.S. public can have sustained benefits to many facets of the U.S. economy. The increased introduction of low-fat, good tasting, heart-healthy foods is one mechanism to address this issue. In this report the physical and textural properties of cakes made using Nutrim OB, a patent USDA fat substitute, and flaxseed are reported. It was shown that cakes could be produced with acceptable texture at fat replacement levels of up to 40% by weight. These products represent viable fat replacers for a variety of commercial food products.
Technical Abstract: Cake shortening contents were replaced with Nutrim oat bran (OB) and/or flaxseed flour and the effects of these substitutions on the physical and rheological properties of cakes were investigated. Cakes with shortening replaced up to 40% by weight possessed a volume similar to that of the control cake produced with shortening. The cakes prepared with Nutrim OB and/or flaxseed flour had higher symmetry indices than the control. Replacement using Nutrim OB and flaxseed flour revealed significant color changes in both the cake crust and crumb. At high levels of substitution the cake crust became lighter, while the crumb darkened. Above 40% by weight substitution with either Nutrim OB or flaxseed, the cakes displayed increased hardness; however, the cohesiveness and springiness increased gradually with decreasing substitution. Increased substitution with Nutrim OB caused an increase in the measured shear viscosity and oscillatory storage and loss moduli of the cakes. Increased substitution with flaxseed caused decreases in these rheological parameters. Additional rheological experiments were performed to elucidate changes in the formulations during the baking process and indicated an increase in the elasticity of the baked batter with decreasing shortening.