Submitted to: Vaccine
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/8/2004
Publication Date: 7/14/2004
Citation: Martinez, I., Barrera, J., Rodriguez, L.L., Wertz, G.W. 2004. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis (indiana) virus expressing new jersey and indiana glycoproteins includes neutralizing antibodies to each serotype in swine, a natural host. Vaccine 22: 4035-4043. Interpretive Summary: This study represents an important step in the development of a multivalent attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vaccine capable of protecting against both serotypes: New Jersey (VSNJV) and Indiana 1 (VSIV). Using recombinant DNA technology we obtained VSIV that contained two copies of the G gene, one from each serotype (VSIV-GNJGI). We showed that this recombinant virus expressed both glycoproteins and induced neutralizing antibodies against both serotypes in swine. Animals vaccinated with VSIV-GNJGI were protected against high-dose challenge with VSIV-GI, but 3 of 4 animals developed lesions after challenge with a highly pathogenic New Jersey field isolate. Further studies are necessary to understand the nature of the protective immune response to VSNJV.
Technical Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the most common cause of vesicular disease outbreaks in livestock throughout the Western Hemisphere. Two major serotypes, Indiana and New Jersey, cause epidemic disease in pigs, cattle, and horses. We generated recombinant viruses derived from the Indiana serotype genome that were engineered to contain and express: 1) a single copy of the glycoprotein gene from the Indiana serotype (VSIV-GI); 2) a single copy of the glycoprotein gene from the New Jersey serotype (VSIV-GNJ); or 3) two copies of the glycoprotein gene, one from each of the two major VSV serotypes (VSIV-GNJGI) . These recombinant viruses and a highly pathogenic New Jersey field isolate (VSNJV), from which the GNJ gene was derived, were inoculated into swine, a natural host, and the induction of neutralizing antibodies to both serotypes was analyzed. The neutralizing antibody response induced by VSIV-GI,VSIV-GNJ and VSNJV was serotype-specific, according to the glycoprotein expressed. VSIV-GNJGI expressed both glycoproteins stably through multiple rounds of replication in swine and induced neutralizing antibodies against both VSV serotypes, with a dominance of the Indiana serotype in the serological response. Pigs immunized with VSIV-GI or VSIV-GNJ were protected against homologous high dose virus challenge. Pigs inoculated with VSIV-GNJGI were protected against challenge with VSIV-GI but 3 of 4 animals developed lesions after challenge with the highly pathogenic New Jersey field isolate.