Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/18/2006
Publication Date: 6/1/2007
Citation: Sanders, S.Q., Boothe, D.D., Frank, J., Arnold, J.W. Culture and detection of campylobacter jejuni within mixed populations of biofilms on stainless steel. Journal of Food Protection. Vol. 70:6, p1379-1385. Interpretive Summary: The purpose of this study was to construct and analyze biofilms that contained Campylobacter jejuni on stainless steel surfaces. Many different bacteria from the poultry processing environment were used to form biofilms along with C. jejuni. C .jejuni alone was first grown on six media, at two temperatures, and two atmospheric conditions in order to develop a method for its growth within biofilms. Growth was measured with various numbers of C. jejuni cells and the other bacteria to determine how to mix them together for best growth within biofilms on stainless steel. All the biofilm formations were viewed using special microscopy to detect the presence of C. jejuni. The spread of the biofilm over the surface increased from 24 hours to 48 hours, where it remained about the same until 96 hours. C .jejuni and the other bacteria formed biofilms on stainless steel. C. jejuni initially increased in surface spread but eventually had a decrease. Data showed that the presence of the other bacteria increased the numbers of C. jejuni on stainless steel. This work provides the basis to study interactions of C. jejuni with other bacteria in the environment, a necessary beginning to determine the importance of this pathogen to food safety and to design effective measures for its control.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this paper is to elucidate the formation and composition of biofilms that contain Campylobacter jejuni. Biofilms containing mixed populations of bacteria from the poultry processing environment that included the target pathogen, C. jejuni 1221 gfp, were constructed. C. jejuni growth was assessed with six media, two temperatures, and two atmospheric conditions to develop culture methods for liquid media that would allow growth within the biofilms. Growth kinetics were followed at four cell densities to determine temporal compatibility with biofilm mixtures. Thus, a protocol was developed for growing C. jejuni within biofilms on stainless steel coupons. Assessment of the biofilm constructs by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that C. jejuni 1221 gfp formed a biofilm on stainless steel when incubated without other bacteria. The average surface area of steel covered by C. jejuni 1221 gfp increased from 24 hours to approximately equivalent levels at 48 and 96 hours, respectively. C. jejuni 1221 gfp and mixed bacterial populations formed biofilms on stainless steel. This mixture was characterized by an initial increase and a subsequent decrease of the surface area coverage of stainless steel by C. jejuni 1221 gfp for each time period. Data on the surface area of stainless steel associated with C. jejuni 1221 gfp when incubated with either of two different initial inoculum densities of other bacteria suggested that the presence of mixed populations of bacteria enhanced the numbers of C. jejuni on stainless steel. This work provides the basis to study interactions of Campylobacter jejuni with other bacteria in the environment, a necessary prelude to determine the importance of the pathogen to food safety and to design effective intervention strategies.