Submitted to: Journal of American Pomological Society
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/6/2004
Publication Date: 4/1/2004
Citation: Miller, S.S., Mcnew, R., Belding, R., Berkett, L., Brown, S., Clements, J., Cline, J., Cowgill, W., Crassweller, R., Garcia, E., Greene, D., Greene, G., Hampson, C., Merwin, I., Moran, R., Roper, T., Schupp, J., Stover, E. 2004. Performance of apple cultivars in the 1995 ne-183 regional project planting: ii. fruit quality characteristics. Journal of American Pomological Society. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 58:65-77, 2004 Interpretive Summary: The objective and systematic evaluation of apple cultivars across many planting sites in North America would provide valuable assistance to growers in selecting new cultivars to plant. In addition, consumers would be able to make informed purchasing choices if provided with fruit quality descriptions. A regional project was initiated in 1995 to evaluate apple cultivars on Malling 9 rootstock planted at 19 sites across North America. The present paper compares the fruit quality of 19 cultivars at 13 sites. 'Golden Delicious' was the standard cultivar for reference in making comparisons of performance. No one single cultivar proved to be superior in all fruit quality variables measured. Information is presented so growers may make selections based on their most desired attributes. The data presented will prove valuable to tree fruit extension and fruit consultant personnel for making recommendations.
Technical Abstract: The fruit quality performance of 19 apple (Malus xdomestica Borkh.) cultivars on Malling.9 (M.9) rootstock was followed for four growing seasons at 13 locations across North America as part of the NE-183 Regional Project, "Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars." At each site, trees were planted in 1995 in five randomized blocks with single-tree plots. Cultural management followed regional commercial recommendations for apple culture. 'Fortune' produced the largest fruit averaging 300 g and 9.1 cm diameter followed closely by 'Shizuka' (295 g; 8.6 cm) and 'Enterprise' (262 g; 8.5 cm). 'Pristine' was the smallest fruit evaluated at a mean weight of 136 g per fruit and 7.1 cm diameter. Fruit shape of six cultivars were characterized as conic based on a length/diameter (L/D) ratio of 0.93 while 'Gala Supreme', 'NY 75414-1', and 'Pristine', with an L/D ratio of 0.82 to 0.83, were best described as oblate apples. At harvest 'Braeburn' and 'GoldRush' had the highest flesh firmness at 20.0 and 20.7 lbs force respectively. 'Pristine' and 'Sunrise', both summer cultivars, had the lowest flesh firmness and soluble solids concentraton (SSC). 'Gala Supreme' and 'GoldRush' had the highest SSC and 'GoldRush' and 'Pristine' produced fruit with the highest titratable acidity (TA) levels. Among red skin cultivars, 'Enterprise' and 'NY 75414-1' stood out with better than 85 % surface red overcolor. 'Suncrisp' had about 28% of the fruit surface covered with a reddish blush, which was significantly more than the other yellow skin cultivars. 'Arlet' and 'Gala Supreme' rated highest in skin surface russet formation with 5 to 10 % of the surface russeted. A stability analysis was performed for all variables measured. No cultivar proved perfectly stable, but 'Enterprise' and 'Ginger Gold' were stable for seven of nine variables. In contrast, 'Honeycrisp', 'NY 75414-1' and 'Suncrisp' were consistently unstable cultivars in all variables measured.