Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/5/2004
Publication Date: 6/14/2004
Citation: Suh, C.P., Spurgeon, D.W., Knutson, A.E. 2004. Detecting cotton fleahopper movement into fields with sticky traps. In: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, January 5-9, 2004, San Antonio, Texas. 2004 CDROM.
Interpretive Summary: Current methods for detecting cotton fleahopper infestations in cotton require considerable labor and time. Consequently, fleahopper treatment decisions are typically based on other factors such as plant growth stage or need for treatment of other insects. However, because the timing and intensity of fleahopper movement into cotton varies, insecticide applications for cotton fleahoppers are often mis-timed. Development of a practical trapping system could improve cotton fleahopper management by alerting producers about fleahopper movement into cotton, and by potentially indicating the duration and intensity of movement. Studies initiated in 2002 were repeated in 2003 to determine the potential use of two different types of traps for detecting mass movements and presence of fleahoppers in cotton. As in 2002, screened tent-shaped traps (malaise traps) showed little potential as a monitoring tool for fleahoppers. However, yellow or white cards covered with adhesive material (sticky traps) showed considerable promise for this use. Our results suggest yellow sticky traps are superior to white traps, and the utility of sticky traps depends on their placement. Sticky traps placed on the field border 2 m above the soil surface appear to be useful for detecting mass movement of fleahoppers, while sticky traps placed in the field interior appear more useful for detecting the presence of fleahoppers within cotton fields. Our preliminary results identify several factors, including trap placement and color, that should be considered in the development of a trap-based cotton fleahopper monitoring system.
Technical Abstract: Studies initiated in 2002 to determine the feasibility of using traps to detect cotton fleahopper movement into cotton were continued in 2003. Malaise traps and two colors of sticky traps (yellow, white) were evaluated in five cotton fields. Both colors of sticky traps were positioned at three heights (ground level, 1, and 2 m above the soil surface) on the field border, and in the field interior just above the plant canopy on the 30th row. Malaise traps were positioned only on the field border. Captures by malaise traps were substantially higher than the previous year, but were still inconsistent as a result of trap blockage by large insects or spider webbing. These occurrences probably limit the value of malaise traps for monitoring fleahopper movement. Sticky traps, however, show considerable promise for this use. In general, infield sticky traps captured more fleahoppers than border traps, and yellow sticky traps tended to capture more fleahoppers than white traps, regardless of trap location. Differences in captures between trap colors and heights were less pronounced than in 2002, but peaks in captures at the 2-m trap height appeared to be related to discrete mass movement events of fleahoppers. Our results suggest sticky traps placed in the field interior are more useful for detecting the presence of fleahoppers in cotton fields, while traps at 2-m height on the field border may be useful for detecting mass migration events.