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item Fermin, Gustavo
item Tennant, Paula
item Gonsalves, Carol
item Lee, David
item Gonsalves, Dennis

Submitted to: Transgenic Plants: Methods and Protocols
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/20/2004
Publication Date: 8/20/2004
Citation: Fermin, G., Tennant, P., Gonsalves, C., Lee, D., Gonsalves, D. 2004. Comparative development and impact of transgenic papayas in hawaii, jamaica and venezuela. Transgenic Plants: Methods and Protocols. 286:399-430.

Interpretive Summary: See Technical Abstract.

Technical Abstract: We present data concerning the creation of transgenic papayas resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and their adoption by three different countries: USA (e.g. Hawaii), Jamaica and Venezuela. Although the three sets of transgenic papayas showed effective resistance to PRSV, adoption rate in each country has varied from full exploitation in Hawaii, to aggressive testing but delay in deregulating of the product in Jamaica, to rejection at an early stage in Venezuela. Factors that contributed to the rapid adoption in Hawaii include a timely development of the transgenic product, PRSV causing severe damage to the papaya industry, close collaboration between researchers and the industry, and the existence of procedures for deregulating a transgenic product. In Jamaica, the technology for developing the initial field-testing of the product progressed rather rapidly, but the process of deregulation has been slowed down due to the lack of sustained governmental efforts to complete the regulatory procedures for transgenic crops. In Venezuela, the technology to develop and greenhouse test the transgenic papaya has moved abreast with the Jamaica project, but the field testing of the transgenic papaya within the country was stopped very early on by actions by people opposed to transgenic products. The three cases are discussed in an effort to provide information on factors, other than technology, that can influence the adoption of a transgenic product.