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item HARMAN, G.
item Howell, Charles - Charlie
item VITERBO, A.
item CHET, I.
item LORITO, M.

Submitted to: Nature Reviews Microbiology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/12/2003
Publication Date: 1/20/2004
Citation: Harman, G.E., Howell, C.R., Viterbo, A., Chet, I., Lorito, M. 2004. Trichoderma spp.--opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2:43-56.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Trichoderma spp. are free-living fungi that are very common in soil and root ecosystems. Recent discoveries demonstrate that they are opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts as well as parasites of other fungi. At least some strains establish robust and long-lasting colonization of root surfaces and penetrate into the epidermis and a few cells below this level. They produce or release a variety of compounds that induce localized or systemic resistance responses and these explain their lack of pathogenicity to plants. These root-microbe associations cause substantial changes in the plant proteome and metabolism. Plants are protected from numerous classes of plant pathogens by responses similar to systemic acquired resistance and rhizobacterial induced systemic resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma spp. frequently also enhances root growth and development, crop productivity, resistance to abiotic stresses and uptake and utilization of nutrients.