Submitted to: Pesticide Outlook
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/15/2003
Publication Date: 10/1/2003
Citation: Barnard, D.R. 2003. CONTROL OF FLY-BORNE DISEASES. Pesticide Outlook. 14;222-228.
Interpretive Summary: Flies are small, soft-bodied, insects that belong to the Order Diptera. Many are of economic importance or transmit disease agents that sicken/kill humans and animals. The eyeworm, Loa loa, and the parasites (trypanosomes) that cause sleeping sickness in humans and cattle are transmitted by flies. Enteropathogenic bacteria, such as Shigella and Escherichia coli O157:H7, are spread by flies that feed on waste organic matter and frequent the food and food handling utensils of humans. Myiasis is caused by the larvae of fly species (such as the screwworm fly) that invade living body tissues, whereas blow flies and flesh flies infest meat and carrion. Filth-inhabiting flies (including the cosmopolitan house fly, Musca domestica) are a nuisance for livestock and agricultural workers, and can lower the quality of life in urban/suburban environments. This article summarizes our knowledge of the control of fly-borne diseases and was written by scientists at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology (at the request of the Editorial Board of the Royal Chemical Society publication Pesticide Outlook) because of the public and animal health importance of flies.
Technical Abstract: Flies pose a major threat to public and animal health in many parts of the world. Conventional fly control techniques include sanitation and source reduction, the use of toxic baits and growth regulators, and the application of residual insecticides to adult fly resting surfaces. New fly control technologies are based on the use of genetic and microbial methods, removal trapping (augmented with fly attractants), and waste/environmental management systems. Successful fly control depends on a comprehensive knowledge of fly biology and natural history, which scientists use to construct simulation models that predict fly activity and to develop and test safe and effective emergency, and long-term, fly control technology.