Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/11/2003
Publication Date: 1/1/2004
Citation: Kaur, M., Singh, N., Sandhu, K.S., Guraya, H.S. 2004. Physico-chemical, morphological, thermal, and rheological properties of starches separated from kernels of some indian mango cultivars (mangifera indica l.) Food Chemistry. 85:131-140. Interpretive Summary: The mango tree is a tree fruit well-known and widely consumed throughout the tropical world, but is grown commercially in mainland U.S.A. only in southern Florida. Demand for mangoes is increasing in Florida as more people become aware of their unique flavor, and as the Latin American and Asian population grows. In 1995, fresh mango consumption exceeded that of numerous other fresh fruits; including apricots, cherries, cranberries, kiwifruit, papayas, plums, and prunes. Although Florida produces good quantities of high-quality mangoes, production costs are three to five times what they are in drier climates. Due to inexpensive imports from Mexico, Florida growers are losing their market share. We need to develop value-added products from the waste materials generated during processing of mangoes. The seed which represents 15-20% of the total weight, contains 58% starch. We isolated and evaluated properties of starch from different varieties of mangoes. Based on these properties, the starch has potential to be used in the food industry.
Technical Abstract: The starches separated from kernels of five different Indian mango cultivars (Chausa,Totapuri, Kuppi, Langra and Dashehari) were investigated for physico-chemical, morphological, thermal, and rheological properties. Mean granule length and width of the starches separated from mango cultivars ranged between 15.8-21.7 and 8.7-14.1 'm, respectively. The shape of starch granules varied from oval to elliptical. Amylose content of mango kernel starches from different cultivars ranged between 9.1-16.3%. Totapuri kernel starch, with the largest mean granular size, had the highest amylose content, while Chausa kernel starch, with the lowest mean granular size, had the lowest amylose content. The transition temperatures (To, Tp and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (DHgel) were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To, Tp and Tc varied from 73.4-76.3, 78.1-80.3 and 83.0-85.7oC, respectively. Chausa kernel starch showed highest To, Tp, Tc, DHgel, and peak height index among starches from different mango cultivars. The rheological properties of the starches from different mango cultivars measured using a dynamic rheometer, showed significant variation in the peak G', G'' and peak tan d values. Totapuri kernel starch showed highest peak G', G'', breakdown in G' and lowest peak tan d values. The large-size granules of Totapuri kernel starch appeared to be associated with higher values of peak G' and G''. The turbidity of the gelatinized aqueous starch suspensions from all mango cultivars increases with longer storage periods. Dashehari starch paste showed the lowest turbidity values than other mango cultivars.