Submitted to: Virus Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/26/2004
Publication Date: 3/1/2004
Citation: Kingsley, D.H., Chen, H., Hoover, D.G. 2004. Inactivation of selected picornavirus by high hydrostatic pressure. Virus Research. Vol. 102. pg. 221-224. 2004. Interpretive Summary: High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) has utility as a nonthermal processing technology for sanitizing uncooked or minimally processed food products such as raw shellfish. Human viruses account for more than 2/3 of all food-borne illnesses in the USA and are a serious problem for the shellfish industry, since these viruses can be concentrated within shellfish tissues from contaminated estuarine waters. Previous work suggested that hepatitis A virus and feline calicivirus, a virus genetically related to Norwalk virus, can be inactivated at moderate pressures of 66,700 and 39,900 pounds per square inch (psi) respectively (Kingsley et al., J. Food Prot. 2002 65:1605-1609). In this paper, we investigated the potential of HPP to inactivate other virus strains which may pose a threat to shellfish consumers. Aichi virus, an oyster-associated virus endemic to Asia, and Coxsackievirus B5 were highly resistant to pressures as high as 87,000 psi. However, Coxsackievirus A9 was sensitive to pressure treatment with 3.4-log10 reductions observed after treatment with 58,000 psi for 5 min. Human parechovirus-1 infectivity was reduced by 4.3-log10 after a 5-min treatment at 72,500 psi. In summary, this work indicates that while HPP may be effective for selected viruses, high pressure treatments of ' 87,000 psi will not inactivate all viruses which pose a potential threat to raw shellfish consumers.
Technical Abstract: The potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) to inactivate Aichivirus, human parechovirus-1, and Coxsackievirus strains A9 and B5 was investigated. For Coxsackievirus A9, a 5-min HPP treatment in minimum essential growth medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine sera (FBS) resulted in 3.4, 6.5 and 7.6 log10 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) reductions at 400, 500, and 600 megaPascals (MPa), respectively. For human parechovirus-1, a 5-min treatment in MEM with 10% FBS resulted in reductions of 1.3-, 4.3-, and 4.6-log10 TCID50% at 400, 500, and 600 MPa, respectively. However, Aichivirus and Coxsackievirus B5 in MEM supplemented with 2 and 10% FBS, respectively, remained fully infectious after a 5-min treatment at 600 MPa. These data establish that different picornaviruses have widely variable pressure inactivation thresholds in response to HPP.