Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/27/2003
Publication Date: 2/1/2005
Citation: Swayne, D.E., Akey, B. 2005 Avian influenza control strategies in the united states of america. In: Schrijver,R.S., Koch,G., editors. Avian influenza prevention and control, Wageningen UR Frontis Series, 8th edition. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp.152.
Interpretive Summary: Not required.
Technical Abstract: Prevention, control and eradication are three different goals or outcomes for dealing with avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in commercial poultry of the USA. These goals are achieved through various strategies developed using components of biosecurity (prevention or reduction in exposure), surveillance and diagnostics, elimination of infected poultry, decreasing host susceptibility to the virus (vaccination or host genetics), and education. However, the success of any developed strategy has depended on industry-government trust, cooperation and interaction. The preferred outcome for HPAI has been stamping-out for which the federal government has regulatory authority to declare an emergency and do immediate eradication of HPAI, and pay indemnities. For H5and H7LPAI, strategies vary from an immediate control plan followed by an intermediate to long-term strategy of eradication. The state governments have regulatory authority over H5 and H7 LPAI, but work cooperatively with USDA in joint programs. Stamping-out has been used occasionally used as has controlled marketing, but inconsistently, indemnities have been funded by the state governments and the poultry industries, and less frequently by USDA. Vaccines have been occasionally used but require USDA license of the vaccine and approval from both state and federal government before use in the field. Non-H5 and H7 LPAI generally follow a preventive program, such as H1N1 swine influenza vaccination for turkey breeders. In other situations, control and eradication strategies are followed but regulatory authority is lacking for USDA. Most programs for LPAI are voluntary and industry driven.