Submitted to: Canadian Journal of Botany
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/8/2005
Publication Date: 1/30/2006
Citation: Cervantes-Martinez, T., Horner, H.T., Palmer, R.G., Hymowitz, T., Brown, A. 2006. Calcium oxalate crystal macropattern in leaves of species from groups Glycine and Shuteria (Glycininae; phaseoleae; papilionoideae; fabaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany. 83(11):1410-1421. Interpretive Summary: Calcium oxalate (C0) crystals (size, number, and location) in plants have long intrigued scientists. C0 crystals are the major component of kidney stones in humans. These C0 crystals may serve as a trait in classification studies. However, there function in plants is not known. Reproduction structures, e.g. the nectary and seeds have low/high levels during development. Our objective was to survey the cultivated soybean, the wild annual soybean, the wild perennial soybean species and related plants for C0 crystal number and location. If null plants (no C0 crystals) were found, would the reproductive structures be changed. In addition, these C0 data were compared to the molecular taxonomic classification of these plants. No nulls within the soybean genus were found. In a distantly related genus, very low levels were found in one species. Since no C0 nulls were found in soybean, we cannot study the effect on reproductive development. Taxonomic comparisons using C0 crystal data were shown to complement molecular taxonomic data. This information will be useful to soybean scientists and to others interested in speciation and taxonomy.
Technical Abstract: Calcium oxalate crystals associated with leaf veins and mesophyll was determined for taxa in two groups Glycine and Shuteria of subtribe Glycininae. Trichomes and veins were identified as additional characters. The annual and wild perennial Glycine species have the most reduced characters by generally displaying short vein crystals, no mesophyll crystals, shorter trichomes, and thin veins. These data indicate that the annual cultivated Glycine max and wild annual G. soja have the most reduced characters of all species within both groups. Species of genera closely related to Glycine in Group Glycine, and those in Group Shuteria, show a mixture of both short and long crystals, more mesophyll crystals, longer trichomes and thicker veins. Phylogenetic comparisons of closely related species support the characters used in this study as being useful, complementary indicators of taxonomic relationships, and may be more useful as additional molecular data is acquired.