Submitted to: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Issue Paper
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/22/2003
Publication Date: 11/15/2003
Citation: KING, D.J. EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN THE UNITED STATES, 2002-2003. NewsCAST, V.30, p.14.
Interpretive Summary: Not required.
Technical Abstract: The Exotic Newcastle disease (END) free status of the U.S was lost with the diagnosis of END in game fowl during early October 2002 and in commercial laying chickens during December 2002 and resulted in several countries banning importation of U.S. poultry and poultry products. The Southern California outbreak which spread to backyard birds in Nevada and Arizona plus a new introduction of END virus (ENDV) in Texas resulted in quarantines of effected premises and depopulation of 3.9 million birds to eradicate the disease. Although the U.S. has typically been free of END, the threat of its introduction is constant from infected birds presented at quarantine, smuggled birds, and infected migrating cormorants. Fortunately, except for the 2002-2003 outbreak, introductions of END since the last major outbreak in California during the early 1970s have been confined to single premises and quickly eradicated. All birds are believed to be susceptible to ENDV infection, but clinical disease may not be evident in some species. Clinically normal birds that are ENDV infected do shed virus and thus can spread the disease the same as clinically sick birds. Contact between infected and susceptible birds is the most important mode of ENDV transmission. The prevention and control of END requires effective biosecurity to prevent introduction and spread of ENDV combined with laboratory based virus detection in surveillance samples from normal and sick birds to identify ENDV if it should occur.