Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/28/2003
Publication Date: 6/1/2004
Citation: Chirase, N.K., Greene, L.W., Purdy, C.W., Loan, R.W., Auvermann, B.W., Parker, D.B., Walborg, E.F., Stevenson, D.E., Xu, Y., Klaunig, J.E. 2004. The effect of transport stress on respiratory disease, serum antioxidant status, and serum concentrations of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in beef cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 65(6):860-864
Interpretive Summary: Marketing stress including transportation stress induces bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) that cost the feeder calf industry $750, 000, 000 dollars per year. Many viral and bacterial vaccines have been produced to minimize the induction of this disease. Yet BRDC still exist and the economic losses still occur. Therefore, further research is needed concerning factors that may influence the immune system, such as antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E) and toxic break down products like lipoperoxidantion levels. Marketing stress reduced the total antioxidant capacity of the serum and increased the peroxidase levels 3-fold in the serum of stressed calves. Calves that eventually died of BRDC had 43% higher peroxidase levels one-day post transit than calves that never became sick. Calves that became sick with BRDC and had to be treated 3 times with antibiotics had a 2-fold higher peroxidase level than healthy calves on arrival at the feedyard. Conclusion marketing stress increased oxidative stress biomarkers, which were related to BRDC sickness and calf mortality.
Technical Abstract: The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of marketing stress on oxidative stress biomarker concentrations of beef steer calves with or without tilmicosin treatment. One-hundred-five crossbred young steers were purchased from 3 eastern Tennessee auction markets, and assembled at a nearby Order-Buyer (OB), then transported 1,930 km to a feedyard located in Bushland, Texas. The calves were identified, weighed, temperatured, and blood sampled at the OB, and parameters and samples were taken on day 1, 15, 22, and 28 in the feedyard. Calves were scored daily for signs of respiratory disease. All serum samples were used to measure serum total antioxidant capacity (TACA) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and used as oxidative stress biomarkers. Marketing stress decreased (P < 0.002) serum TACA (147 vs. 133 U/ml; d-3 vs. 1), and increased (P < 0.001) serum MDA concentrations (10.9 vs. 30.2 microgram/milliliter; d-3 vs. 1). Calves that died had 43% more serum MDA concentration on d 1 post transit than those that lived (42.2 vs. 29.4 microgram/milliliter). Calves that were treated 3 times for BRDC had 2-fold higher MDA concentrations on arrival (d 1) than healthy calves. Tilmicosin treated calves had 20.8% greater (P < 0.05) average daily gain and greater (P < 0.05) serum TACA than controls on d 28-post transit. Marketing stress increased oxidative stress biomarkers, which were related to degree of BRDC sickness and calf mortality.