Submitted to: Aquaculture Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/16/2004
Publication Date: 3/1/2004
Citation: KLESIUS, P.H., EVANS, J.J., SHOEMAKER, C.A. WARM WATER FISH VACCINES. AQUACULTURE 2004 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. 2004.
Technical Abstract: Vaccination is a safe and effective means to prevent diseases, and to increase the productivity, and the profitability of farmed fish. Vaccines will be the prime prophylactic measure of the future due to rapidly developing advances in fish vaccine technology. Currently, killed and modified live vaccines are licensed, and used to prevent bacterial diseases of fish. Routes of administration of killed and modified live bacterial vaccines are by injection and immersion, respectively. The duration of protective immunity is dependent on the vaccine type. The duration of a killed vaccine with or without adjuvants is 6 to 8 months, in contrast to duration of years for a modified live vaccine. Humoral or antibody-dependent immunity is stimulated by injection of a killed vaccine, and thus its effectiveness is limited to extracellular pathogens that are susceptible to humoral antimicrobial pathways. On the other hand, a modified live vaccine produces both cellular and humoral antimicrobial immunities that can be effective against both intracellular and extracellular pathogens. In addition to these advantages, modified live vaccines can be administered more cost-effectively to larger populations of fish at a younger age with minimal stress to the vaccinates. Vaccination has also resulted in significant reduction on the dependency of producers to use antibiotics treatments to control diseases. Finally, the use of an efficacious vaccine can increase the per unit harvests of larger size healthier fish.