Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Quality
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2001
Publication Date: 6/1/2002
Citation: Wu, L., Green, R.L., Liu, G., Yates, M.V., Pacheco, P., Gan, J., Yates, S.R. 2002. Partitioning and Persistence of Trichlorfon and Chlorpyrifos in a Creeping Bentgrass Putting Green. Journal of Environmental Quality. 31(3):889-895. Interpretive Summary: Golf course putting greens receive frequent pesticide applications to maintain a high-quality grass surface. Pesticide use has the potential to adversely impact environmental and human health. This research on pesticide fate in turf systems is important to better understand the movement and dissipation of two commonly used insecticides, trichlorfon and chlorpyrifos, in a creeping bentgrass. The test plot (i.e., putting green) was maintained under customary field management practices at the University of California-Riverside Turf Research Facility during 1996 and 1997. Two insecticides were chosen due to differences in their chemical properties that affect movement and dissipation. The results showed that emissions, clipping removal, and leaching loss for trichlorfon was insignificant during both years. Chlorpyrifos emission losses of approximately 2-3 percent occurred during the two year study. This study demonstrated the fraction of applied insecticides leaving the turf putting greens was minimal.
Technical Abstract: Golf course putting greens typically receive high pesticide applications to meet high quality demands. Research on pesticide fate in turf ecosystems is important to better understand the potential impact of pesticide use on the environment and human health. This research was conducted to evaluate the environmental fate of two commonly used insecticides'trichlorfon (dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxy-ethylphosphonate) and chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridylphosphorothioate)'in a creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) putting green under customary field management practices at the University of California-Riverside Turf Research Facility during 1996 and 1997. The two insecticides were chosen because of their difference in water solubility, persistence, adsorption, and vapor pressure. Volatilization, clipping removal, and soil residues of the insecticides were quantified and leaching was monitored using lysimeters installed in putting green plots. Results showed trichlorfon volatilization, clipping removal, and leaching loss was insignificant (in the range of 0.0001'0.06 percent of applied mass) both in 1996 and 1997. No significant difference in clipping removal of trichlorfon and chlorpyrifos was observed in both years (0.06 and 0.05 percent of applied mass for trichlorfon and 0.15 and 0.19 percent of applied mass for chlorpyrifos, respectively, in 1996 and 1997), but significantly lower cumulative leaching and lower soil concentration was observed in 1997 than in 1996. Volatilization loss of chlorpyrifos was not significantly different between 1996 (2.05 percent) and 1997 (2.71 percent). Volatilization loss of trichlorfon in 1996 (0.01 percent) was significantly higher than in 1997 (0.008 percent). This study demonstrated the fraction of applied insecticides leaving the turf putting greens was minimal.