Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/9/2004
Publication Date: 1/6/2005
Citation: Mebrahtu, T., Devine, T.E., Donald, P.A., Abney, T.S. 2005. Registration of 'Asmara' Vegetable Soybean. Crop Science. 45:408-409.
Interpretive Summary: The Virginia State University, Agricultural Research Station and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service developed and released a new vegetable soybean cultivar named Asmara on 3/13/03. This report describes the release and the characteristics of the new vegetable soybean cultivar. Vegetable soybean can be harvested at either of two stages: 1) green pod or 2) mature seed. When harvested at the green pod stage, the pods may be lightly cooked in salted, boiling water and the seeds then pressed from the pods with the fingers and ingested directly, or the beans may be shelled from the pod and added to stews, mixed vegetables, soups, casseroles, or stir-fry dishes. When harvested at the mature seed stage, seeds can be used for several soyfood products such as tofu, soymilk or roasted nuts. Vegetable soybeans offer the potential for expanding domestic and international soybean markets. Vegetable soybeans provide farmers, particularly organic vegetable producers, with another crop option to supplement farm income. Vegetable soybeans fit well into existing crop rotation patterns, provide a cash summer crop, and enable farmers to amend soils with green crop residue. Asmara seeds have a high concentration of protein, oleic acid and sucrose. Oleic acid confers health benefits in reducing serum cholesterol levels. Asmara provides growers with a vegetable soybean with superior resistance to seed shattering. Asmara is later in maturity than most vegetable soybean cultivars and therefore extends the season during which soybeans can be harvested.
Technical Abstract: The Virginia State University, Agricultural Research Station and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service developed and released the vegetable soybean cultivar Asmara. Asmara is an F5 derived line from the cross PI417288 x BV-4. BV-4 is a selection from the hybridization of T135 x PI83945-4. T135 is from the genetic type collection maintained by the USDA at Urbana, Illinois. Asmara has white flowers and tawny pubescence. Seeds have a yellow seed coat and buff hila. Plants have determinate growth habit with average height of 54 cm. Asmara is a maturity group VI cultivar. At Petersburg VA, the two-year (2001 and 2002) average yield of green pods was 22,082 kg/ha. Green bean composition averaged 39.6 mg/g sucrose, 43.0% protein, 9.2% oil, with 43.3% of the oil as oleic acid, and. Asmara yielded 2467 kg/ha mature seed. Mature seed composition at Petersburg averaged 43.1% protein, and 12.0% oil, with 22.9% of the oil as oleic acid. At Upper Marlboro Maryland, in 2000 and 2001 the two-year average mature seed yield was 2795 kg/ha. The average seed size from both locations was 22 g per 100 seeds. Asmara is resistant to seed shattering. At Jackson, TN, Asmara was susceptible to races 3 and 14 of the soybean cyst nematode. At West Lafayette IN, Asmara was resistant to race 2, but was susceptible to race 33, of the phytophthora root rot pathogen. Asmara was susceptible to bacterial pustule and mildly susceptible to sudden death syndrome in southern Indiana.