Submitted to: Weed Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/25/2003
Publication Date: 3/1/2004
Citation: BOYDSTON, R.A., WILLIAMS, M.M. COMBINED EFFECTS OF ACERIA MALHERBAE AND HERBICIDES ON FIELD BINDWEED GROWTH. WEED SCIENCE. 2004. 52:297-301.
Interpretive Summary: Field bindweed is an aggressive perennial weed that is difficult to manage in numerous crops. It is native to Europe and Asia and was first reported in the U.S. in 1739. The plant is listed as one of the ten most serious weeds in the world. Most herbicides and cultivation only suppress or partially control field bindweed. In peppermint, 2,4-DB suppresses field bindweed growth, but seldom kills the weed when used at rates that do not injure the crop. A gall-forming mite, Aceria malherbae, was introduced to the U. S. from the Mediterranean region in 1987 and has established on field bindweed in several states including Texas, Montana, and Washington. Control of field bindweed with the mite alone has not been highly effective. Relatively few studies have focused on integrating biological control using arthropods with herbicides for weed management. These studies tested the effects of combining the mite and sublethal doses of two herbicides on field bindweed growth. Mite feeding alone reduced field bindweed shoot and root biomass about 45%. Combining mite feeding with either 2,4-DB or glyphosate application reduced root biomass of field bindweed greater than mites or either herbicide alone. Live mites were present on field bindweed three weeks after treatment with either herbicide. Combining the mite with sublethal herbicide doses may allow for field bindweed suppression while reducing potential herbicide injury to crops and maintaining mite populations. Successful integration of biological control with use of herbicides could allow increased implementation in annual and perennial cropping systems, pasture, and noncrop areas.
Technical Abstract: The effects of a gall mite, Aceria malherbae, and sublethal doses of either 2,4-DB or glyphosate on field bindweed growth were evaluated. Mite feeding alone reduced field bindweed shoot biomass 37 to 48% and root biomass 46 to 50%. 2,4-DB at 0.07 to 0.14 kg ai ha-1 or glyphosate at 0.14 to 0.28 kg ai ha-1 reduced field bindweed root biomass 25 to 52%. Combining A. malherbae feeding with either 2,4-DB or glyphosate application reduced root biomass of field bindweed greater than mites or either herbicide alone. Live A. malherbae were present on field bindweed three weeks after treatment with either herbicide. Combining A. malherbae with sublethal herbicide doses may allow for field bindweed suppression while reducing potential herbicide injury to crops and maintaining A. malherbae populations.