|Newman Jr, Samuel|
Submitted to: Biofactors
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/21/2004
Publication Date: 7/1/2004
Citation: Miller, K.B., Newman Jr, S.M., Caton, J.S., Finley, J.W. 2004. Manganese alters mitochondrial integrity in the hearts of swine marginally deficient in magnesium. Biofactors. 20:85-96.
Interpretive Summary: Although manganese (Mn) is a required mineral in the diet, it may have unhealthy implications when consumed in high concentrations. Heart muscle damage was observed in pigs fed concentrations of Mn similar to concentrations found in commercially available dietary supplements. Heart muscle damage was increased by combining high concentrations of Mn with low dietary magnesium (Mg). In fact, some pigs fed diets high in Mn with low Mg died suddenly. These data suggest that dietary Mn intake should be minimized in people with known mineral deficiencies.
Technical Abstract: It was previously reported that pigs marginally deficient in magnesium (Mg) and fed diets high in manganese (Mn) died suddenly with signs of sudden cardiac death. Manganese, which has properties similar to Mg, may exacerbate Mg-deficiency and, perhaps as a result of free radicals. be accumulated by mitochondria resulting in ultrastructural damage. The objective of the current study was to determine whether previously observed deaths were mediated by adverse interactions of Mn and Mg resulting in whether high induces ultrastructural damage to organelles the myocardium and alterations in electrocardiographic recordings and tissue retention of Mn, Mg and calcium (Ca). Forty-eight pigs were fed one of six diets in a 2 X 3 factorial arrangement of Mg (100 or 1000 mg Mg/kg) and Mn (5, 50 or 500 mg Mn/kg) for 8 weeks. Left ventricle muscle samples were collected for examination by transmission electron microscopy. No differences in heart muscle ultrastructure were observed between pigs fed low and adequate dietary Mg. However, higher dietary Mn in combination with low Mg diets resulted in marked myocardial necrosis and mitochondrial swelling were observed in pigs fed high dietary Mn when combined with low Mg. Feeding low dietary Mg elevated minimum (P < 0.01), maximum (P < 0.05) and average (P < 0.001) heart rates. Low dietary Mg resulted in a 55% probability of a ventricular beat being recorded (P = 0.05). Low dietary Mg resulted in lower Mg (P < 0.02) and Ca (P < 0.04) content in heart atria and ventricles. These results suggest that high Mn, when fed in combination with low Mg, disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure and is associated with the sudden deaths previously reported.