|Graybosch, Robert - Bob|
Submitted to: Euphytica
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2004
Publication Date: 5/31/2004
Citation: Budak, H., Baenziger, S.P., Beecher, B., Graybosch, R.A., Campbell, B.T., Shipman, M., Eskridge, K.M., Erayman, M., Lukaszewski, A. 2004. Introgressions of wheat d-genome chromosomes into presto triticale. Euphytica 137:261-270. Interpretive Summary: Triticale is a man-made crop, created by combining the genomes of durum, or bread-wheats, and their close relative rye. The initial intent was to develop a new species that would combine the winter-hardiness and disease resistance of rye with the end-use quality of wheat. While triticale has been quite successful as a forage crop, its utilization as a grain crop has been limited. Along with useful genes from rye, deleterious genes effecting processing quality limit the use of triticale in traditional bread products. Most quality-related genes of wheat reside on the D genome, a set of chromosomes absent in the most commonly used triticales, which contain the A and B genomes of durum wheat, and the R genomes of rye. In this study, we attempted to develop triticales with improved bread-making quality by introgressing chromosomes from the D genome, and using them to replace chromosomes from the R genome. No D-genome chromosome substitutions increased grain yield, while the three substitutions decreased the grain yield. Chromosome 5D increased kernel hardness when substituted for 5R of Presto. As expected, chromosome 1D and 6D introgressions improved end-use quality characteristics of Presto. This study demonstrates the feasibility of additional work to convert triticale into a crop suitable for breadmaking operations.
Technical Abstract: Hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) (2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) differ in their R and D genomes. Wheat and triticale also differ in both agronomic and end-use quality characteristics. For example, the absence of 1D and 6D in triticale reduces the number of wheat storage protein loci and triticale's bread making quality is low. An unanswered question is whether introgressions of the D-genome chromatin from wheat could improve agronomic and end-use quality characteristics of hexaploid triticale. Our objective was to determine how chromosomal make-up (the best A, B, D or R composition) affected both agronomic performance and end-use quality characteristics of `Presto¿ triticale. We evaluated the effects of D-genome chromosome substitutions on agronomic performance and end-use quality of 18 substitution genotypes, their fifteen controls for the substitutions, and five check cultivars (Triticale:`Presto¿ and `Newcale¿, Wheat: `Arapahoe¿, `Tam107¿, and `Karl 92¿) at Lincoln, NE in 1996, using randomized complete block design with two replications. Fifteen substitution lines that survived the winter; twelve controls for these substitutions, and five check cultivars were then grown with three replications at Lincoln and Mead (1997 and 1998). Most D-genome chromosomes had few positive effects. D-genome chromosomes 2, 4, and 6 significantly reduced plant height when substituting chromosomes 2R, 4B, and 6R respectively of Presto. No D-genome chromosome substitutions increased grain yield, while the three substitutions decreased the grain yield. Chromosome 5D increased kernel hardness when substituted for 5R of Presto. As expected, chromosome 1D and 6D introgressions improved end-use quality characteristics of Presto.