|Tilley, Michael - Mike|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2003
Publication Date: 9/30/2004
Citation: Chung, O.K., Park, S., Tilley, M., Lookhart, G.L. 2004. Improving wheat quality. Chapter 26 in: Breadmaking: Improving Quality. S. P. Cauvain, ed. Woodhead Pub. Co.: London.
Interpretive Summary: Wheat quality improvement begins with breeding. Important traits targeted in wheat breeding include both agronomic and end-use qualities. The USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) includes four Regional Wheat Quality Laboratories (RWQLs) that have made paramount contributions to U.S. wheat improvement for all wheat classes. Quality evaluation in the U.S. bread wheat breeding program was once limited to traditional milling and breadbaking tests. It is now rapidly expanding to include a wider range of tests for multiple end-use products. Tremendous growth exists in non-traditional uses, such as Asian products, noodles, frozen dough, par-bake products, tortillas, and pizza crust. To take full advantage of these expanding markets, new quality parameters and quality prediction tests are being developed. Quality evaluation is a valuable approach to retain the competitive edge in world markets while addressing new demands of domestic consumers.
Technical Abstract: On average for the last three years (1998/99-2000/01), the United States of America (U.S.A.) produced 64.2 million metric tons (mmt) of wheat representing about 11% of the world production. Wheat is the most valuable food crop and the major export crop of the U.S., as 43% (28.8 mmt) enters the export market. The U.S. produces several classes of wheat that have different functional properties and end-uses. The major bread wheat classes, Hard Red Winter (HRW) and Hard Red Spring (HRS) wheats comprise 63-65% of total U.S. wheat production and 62-63% of U.S. wheat exports. There are official U.S. Standards for Wheat, established and maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).