Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Quality
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2003
Publication Date: 11/20/2003
Citation: Kim, J., Papiernik, S.K., Farmer, W.J., Gan, J., Yates, S.R. 2003. Effect of formulation on the behavior of 1,3-dichloropropene in soil. Journal of Environmental Quality. 32:2223-2229.
Interpretive Summary: The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is used for control of parasitic nematodes and other pests in soil to be planted to high-cash-value crops. 1,3-D may be applied to soil without water (shank injection) or with water through drip irrigation systems. 1,3-D is formulated for soil fumigation as Telone II for shank application and as an emulsifiable concentrate (Telone EC or InLine) for drip application. In this study, we investigated the impact of formulation (Telone II and Telone EC) on the behavior of 1,3-D in soil. In general, 1,3-D in the two formulations had very similar rates of 1,3-D transformation and showed a similar distribution between the solid, liquid, and air components of soil. Thus, formulation is not expected to affect these aspects of 1,3-D behavior in soil. Packed soil columns were used to monitor the volatilization of 1,3-D into the atmosphere following soil application. For both formulations, a significant fraction (45 to 50 percent) of the applied 1,3-D was volatilized into the air within 14 days of application. These results indicate the importance of suppressing the transport of 1,3-D vapors in soil to reduce emissions. This knowledge will be useful in designing application protocols that achieve more consistent and uniform pest control and minimize environmental contamination.
Technical Abstract: The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) has been identified as a partial replacement for methyl bromide (CH3Br) in soil fumigation. 1,3-D is formulated for soil fumigation as Telone II for shank application and as an emulsifiable concentrate (Telone EC or InLine) for drip application. This study investigated the effect of formulation on the phase partitioning, transformation rate, and volatilization of 1,3-D isomers. Formulation had little effect of the air-water paritioning and sorption of 1,3-D, and no significant impact on the rate of 1,3-D transformation in water or soil. In general, differences in the rate of 1,3-D transformation and phase partitioning due to formulation as Telone II or Telone EC were very small. Packed soil columns without plastic tarp indicated that with relatively shallow subsurface (10 cm) drip application of Telone EC, emission of 1,3-D isomers was more rapid and produced greater maximum instantaneous flux than deeper (30 cm) shank injection of Telone II. Both application methods resulted in the same cumulative emissions for both isomers, 45 percent for (E)-1,3-D and ~50 percent for (Z)-1,3-D. These results suggest that for drip application of fumigants to be effective in reducing emissions, the fumigant must be applied at sufficient depths to prevent rapid volatilization from the soil surface if the water application rate does not sufficiently restrict vapor diffusion.