Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/1/2003
Publication Date: 12/1/2003
Citation: Jang, E.B., Holler, T., Cristofaro, M., Lux, S., Raw, A., Moses, A., Carvalho, L.A. 2003. Improved attractants for mediterranean fruit fly, ceratitis capitata: responses of sterile and wild flies to (-) enantiomer of ceralure b1. Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(6):1719-1723.
Interpretive Summary: In this study we evaluated an improved attractant for male Mediterranean fruit fly in different areas of the world. We tested the new lure against the current standard male lure an evaluated it's relative attraction against wild flies in Hawaii, Italy and Africa as well as against sterile released flies in California and Florida. We found that the improved lure (minus ceralure B1) is significantly better than the current standard (trimedlure) in nearly all of the trials. If the new lure can be manufactured cost-effectively, it could replace trimedlure in detection and control programs against this pest.
Technical Abstract: New methods for region and stereo specific synthesis of enatiomers of cearlure B1 (Ethylcis-5-Iodo-trans-2-methylcyclohexane-1-carboxylate) have resulted in development of improved male attractants for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata. In previous tests conducted in the laboratory and open field, laboratory released medflies were shown to be significantly more attracted to (-) ceralure B1 compared to trimedlure (tert-butyl 4(and 5)-chloro-2-methylcyclohexane 1-carboxylate), the most prevalent male lure used in detection and delimitation programs worldwide. This study report on follow-up studies on wild and sterile released medflies to various dosages of (-) ceralure B1 molecule and trimedlure. Tests were conducted on wild flies in Hawaii, Italy and Africa, and on sterile released flies in Florida and California. Medfly males were significantly more attracted to the (-) ceralure B1 than to trimedlure in each of the sites tested. When compared with the standard 2 g trimedlure plug, doses as low as 10 mg were as attractive or more attractive to males as the 2 g plug for the first days of the test. Based on our studies the (-) ceralure B1 molecule is estimated to be 4-9 times as potent as trimedlure for attracting male medflies. The increased attraction of males to this molecule increases the potential for its use in male annihilation strategies used in conjunction with areawide control programs. Future refinements in synthesis and costs of this compound will greatly improve monitoring, detection and control of the medfly worldwide.