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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Wenatchee, Washington » Physiology and Pathology of Tree Fruits Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #148203

Title: PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF 'BRAEBURN' AND 'GALA' APPLES TO HIGH CO2

Author
item GONG, YIPING
item Mattheis, James

Submitted to: HortScience
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/30/2003
Publication Date: 8/3/2003
Citation: Gong, Y., Mattheis, J.P. Physiological responses of 'Braeburn' and 'Gala' apples to high CO2. HortScience 38:859. 2003.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Exposing apple fruit to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) during ripening and storage can induce physiological disorders including internal browning. As apple fruit sensitivity to CO2 varies with cultivar, experiments using two cultivars with high ('Braeburn') and low ('Gala') CO2 sensitivity were conducted to evaluate physiological responses in fruit held at 20 deg C in air or 20 kPa CO2. The incidence of CO2 injury (internal browning) in 'Braeburn' apples stored in air or 20 kPa CO2 for 10 days was 3% and 38%, respectively. No injury was observed in 'Gala' apples regardless of storage environment. At harvest, lipid soluble antioxidant (LSA) and water soluble antioxidant (WSA) activity were highest in 'Braeburn' apples. After 10 days at 20 deg C, LSA activity was highest in 'Braeburn' apples regardless of storage environment. At harvest, lipid soluble antioxidant (LSA) and water soluble antioxidant (WSA) activity were highest in 'Braeburn' apples. After ten days at 20 deg C, LSA activity was highest in 'Braeburn' apples regardless of storage conditions; however, WSA was similar between both cultivars and storage environments. No cultivar difference in in vitro superoxide dismustase (SOD) or NADH oxidase activity was detectable at harvest. Activity of SOD increased during ten days at 20 deg C and was similar for both cultivars stored in air; however, the increase in activity was less in 'Braeburn' apples stored in 20 kPa CO2. NADH oxidase activity at harvest was similar between cultivars. For 'Gala', NADH oxidase activity decreased during 10 days at 20 deg C and activity was lowest in fruit previously held in 20 kPa CO2. Activity of NADH oxidase increased relative to activity at harvest in 'Braeburn' apples held in 20 kPa CO2. The results suggest CO2 sensitivity in 'Braeburn' apples may be related to increased NADH oxidase and lower SOD activities that occur during exposure to high CO2.