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item DARRE, M
item CAREY, J
item AHN, D
item ERNST, R
item KUNEY, D
item Jones, Deana

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/15/2003
Publication Date: 7/6/2003
Citation: Patterson, P.H., Koelkebeck, K.E., Anderson, K.E., Darre, M.J., Carey, J.B., Ahn, D.U., Ernst, R.A., Kuney, D.R., Jones, D.R. 2003. National egg temperature survey: 1. production. Poultry Science. 82(suppl.):52.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: During the hearings on the Egg Safety Action Plan in Washington, DC, many questions were raised concerning the egg temperature (T) patterns used in the risk assessment model. Therefore, a national study was initiated to determine the T of eggs from oviposition through distribution. Researchers from Extension and USDA-ARS, in CA, CT, GA, IA, IL, NC, TX, and PA gathered data on internal and surface egg T from commercial egg production facilities. An infrared thermometer was used to rapidly measure egg surface T, and interior T was determined by probing the egg. The main effects evaluated were; geographic region, season, and operation type. Egg T data was recorded at specific locations in the production facilities in order to standardize the comparisons. The experimental design was a mixed model with two random effects of season and geographic region and a fixed effect component for operation type, i.e. in-line or off-line operations. Egg winter surface T in the hen house averaged 24.0C with a range of 40.0 to 10.0C. Mean summer surface T was 28.3C, from 38.0 to 21.0C, with a seasonal difference of 4.3C. Interior egg T averaged 27.3 in winter and 30.1C in summer. There was a significant correlation (0.832) between egg surface and interior T that validated further use of the infrared thermometer. Additional data were collected with the goal of building an egg T x time risk model. The T differential (dT) between internal egg T and hen house ambient T during mechanical belt gathering (90min) was 2.2C in summer and 1.4C in winter. Ambient T on the rod conveyors averaged 24.4 and 19.0C in summer and winter with an egg residence time of 29 to 43min for in-line complexes of 6 to 9 houses. Key Words: shell egg production, temperature, risk model