|Graybosch, Robert - Bob|
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/23/2003
Publication Date: 9/30/2003
Citation: Budak, H., Baenziger, P.S., Graybosch, R.A., Beecher, B., Eskridge, K.M., Shipman, M.J. 2003. Genetic and environmental effects on dough mixing characteristics and agronomic performance of diverse hard red winter wheat genotypes. Cereal Chemistry. Interpretive Summary: Dough mixing properties are very important in bread making, and flours milled from different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars can vary widely in the work and energy input required for optimum dough development. The fundamental reasons for these differences are not fully understood, however it is believed that protein content and interactions are involved in the differences between cultivars. Bread doughs should be mixed to the point of optimum gluten development to produce good bread. More or less mixing causes improper dough development, which produces an inferior quality bread. An important factor affecting dough quality is the dough mixing time. The practical advantage of a wheat cultivar that is milled to make a flour with a shorter dough mixing peak time (an indication of optimum dough development and stability) but with good mixing tolerance (an indicator of the resistance of a dough to overmixing) is that less labor, time, and energy are needed in the bakery to develop the optimum dough, and that the resultant dough is tolerant of ¿overmixing¿, thus improving consistency of the final product. We found that previously released Agate (3.5 min and 3.8) and Scout 66 (3.2 min and 3.6) and four mixing tolerant lines, NE96457, NE96459, NE96583, and NE96683 had mixing tolerance values that were slightly greater than their mixing time values. Our preliminary screen, which had identified 27 genotypes, was only slightly effective in identifying genotypes (15%) that have shorter mixing time values compared to their mixing tolerance values. Our initial screen predicted acceptable end-use quality traits very well, but the environment caused significant variation for both mixing time and mixing tolerance. Hence to accurately estimate end-use quality traits of a genotype, multiple-environments testing is needed. This is routinely done with multi year testing.
Technical Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with short mixing times usually have low mixing tolerance values, which make them more sensitive to overmixing in commercial bread production. In this study, we evaluated the genotypic and environmental effects on agronomic performance and end-use quality of 27 experimental genotypes (hereafter referred to as mixing tolerant genotypes) which were identified in an initial screen as having short mixing times and good mixing tolerances to: (1)determine if genotypes7 identified in a preliminary end-use quality screen as lines with usually long tolerances but short mixing times were due to their genotype (G), the environment (E), or G X E, (2) as these results were unusual, determine whether or not our initial screen predicts end-use quality, and (3)to determine the stability of both agronomic and end-use quality traits. Our initial screen, which had identified 27 genotypes, was partially effective in identifying genotypes that have shorter mixing time values compared to their mixing tolerance values. We identified four genotypes (15%) from the mixing tolerant genotypes that had a good mixing tolerance value and relatively shorter mixing time, as did the released cultivars `Agate¿ and `Scout 66¿. However, mixing characteristics values of all genotypes fell within the acceptable limits indicating our screen effectively identified genotypes with acceptable quality. Mixing tolerant genotypes, which had been identified as having short mixing time scores and long mixing tolerance scores, were considered stable across environments.