Submitted to: Congress on In Vitro Biology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/1/2003
Publication Date: 6/1/2003
Citation: SATYAVATHI, V.V., JAUHAR, P.P. THE EFFECT OF THREE GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS INDUCTION AND SOMATIC EMBRYO FORMATION FROM ISOLATED SCUTELLA CULTURES OF DURUM WHEAT. CONGRESS ON IN VITRO BIOLOGY. IN VITRO. 2003. V. 39. ABSTRACT p. 48-A. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) is an important cereal crop used for human consumption worldwide. Because of its high protein content and gluten strength, it is the choice wheat for producing pasta products. It is an important crop of the Northern Great Plains of the United States. It is grown in several European countries, including Italy, France, Turkey, Romania and Ukraine, and in Canada. Work on improvement of durum wheat using tools of biotechnology is limited. Development of a reliable in vitro plant regeneration procedure for a cultivar is a prerequisite for its improvement by biotechnological methods involving direct gene transfer. Here, we report the effect of three growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacteic acid (2,4-D), picloram, and dicamba, on callus induction and plant regeneration from scutella cultures of four commercial durum cultivars: Ben, Maier, Munich, and Lebsock. Callus induction was obtained from isolated scutella cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog basal medium. The effects of four concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 mg l-1) of 2,4-D, picloram and dicamba were tested for their ability to induce callus. Calli obtained on different media were either compact or soft and watery. After four weeks of callus induction, all the calli were plated on MS basal medium for regeneration. Genotype and callus induction medium played a dominant role in plantlet regeneration. Data were obtained on callus induction rate, regeneration capacity of the callus and the number of plantlets regenerated. A Logistic Model was used for the statistical analyses of the data. Significant genotypic differences in culture response were observed. Overall, Maier gave the best response in terms of plantlet regeneration, although 2.0mg l-1 (9.05 uM) dicamba and 2.0mg l-1 (9.05 uM) 2,4-D were equally effective in inducing callus in Maier and Lebsock. Dicamba at 2.0mg l-1 concentration was found to be a better growth regulator for inducing compact calli and gave the highest proportion of regenerated plants across the cultivars. All regenerated plantlets were fertile, maintained the tetraploid chromosome number (2n = 4x = 28) and showed no somaclonal variation. Dicamba (9.05 uM) can be utilized in experiments involving transformation of calli from scutella of select durum cultivars and we plan to use this protocol for our transformation work with Maier.