Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/20/2003
Publication Date: 3/22/2003
Citation: Anderson, R.A., Hiniger, I., Mirsky, N., Roussel, A. 2003. Insulin sensitizers and oxidative stress [abstract]. 6th Winter Research Conference, Les Houches, France. Paper No. 4. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The leading causes of oxidative stress include hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and it may be postulated that oxidative stress represents the common pathway through which hyperglycemia and insulin resistance induce depressed insulin action. Two factors that have been shown to have significant in vitro and in vivo effects on insulin function and antioxidant status are chromium and water soluble polyphenols from cinnamon. Chromium was also shown to improve the antioxidant status of people with type 2 diabetes. Polyphenol polymers isolated from cinnamon have also been shown to lead to increased insulin sensitivity due to factors that also increase insulin receptor phosphorylation. Polyphenol polymers isolated from cinnamon were shown to increase insulin activity more than 20-fold and to also function as potent antioxidants. The activity of polyphenols was greater than or equal to the common known antioxidants, ascorbic acid, L-cysteine, N-acetycylsteine, b-carotene and glutathione in the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assay and better than Trolox in the prevention of copper-induced oxidation of LDL-cholesterol. The mechanism of action of both chromium and polyphenol polymers involves the activation of insulin receptor kinase and the inhibition of insulin receptor phosphatase leading to maximal phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and thus greater insulin sensitivity. In summary, these data suggest that the insulin sensitizers, chromium and polyphenol polymers found in cinnamon, may be beneficial in the control of glucose intolerance and diabetes through their effects on insulin sensitivity and also their ability to act as antioxidants.