Submitted to: Annual Meeting and Expo of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/20/2003
Publication Date: 5/20/2003
Citation: CARRAO-PANIZZI, M.C., ERHAN, S.Z. EFFECTS OF CULTIVARS AND SOWING LOCATIONS ON OIL, PROTEIN, AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOYBEANS. ANNUAL MEETING AND EXPO OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY. 2003. Abstract. p.118. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Specialty soybean varieties with improved characters for specific uses may provide high quality products. Information about chemical composition of soybean cultivars and environmental effects on their composition are important for processing industries and exporters to attend demands of niche markets. To determine protein, oil and fatty acid composition of Brazilian soybeans, 250 cultivars grown under fertile soil (pH 5.0, Al 0.0; K 0.43; Ca 2.97; Mg 1.29 and H+Al 10.45cmolc/dm3; C 22.75g/dm3; P 11.96mg/dm3) and under acid soil (pH 3.74; Al 1.71; Ca 0.36; Mg 0.25; and H+Al 11.07cmolc/dm3; C 2.09g/dm3; P 0.2mg/dm3) were analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy for protein and oil, and by gas chromatography for fatty acids. Results indicated that cultivars grown in fertile soil presented a range of protein content of 52.3 to 39.9%, while under acid soil conditions protein content decreased (50.2 to 35.86%). Cultivars 'Campos Gerais' and 'IAC 100', had high protein in both soil conditions. Cultivar 'IAC 100', an insect resistant genotype, presented the lowest percentage of oil (15.6 for fertile soil and 17.7 for acid soil). Variability for fatty acids composition was also observed among cultivars. For instance, under fertile soil, the percentage range of 43.0 to 15.1 for C18:1; 60.4 to 37.0 for C18:2; and 12.3 to 5.9 for C18:3 was observed. Cultivar 'BRS 158 (Milena)' presented the lowest amount of linolenic acid (5.9%). Under acidic soil a reduction of oleic acid was observed while linoleic acid increased, with percentage ranges of 39.3 to 14.4 for C18:1; 61.8 to 40.1 for C18:2 and 13.2 to 5.6 for C18:3. Cultivar 'MS/BRS169 (Bacuri)' presented the highest level of oleic acid and the lowest level of linoleic acid, under fertile and acidic soil conditions. Because of high oleic acid content, this cultivar should be suitable for special uses, including health food or for industrial uses like in lubricants. Among tested genotypes cultivars, 'Industrial' and 'BR-1' presented 60.4 and 61.8 linoleic acid, under fertile and acid soil conditions, respectively. In Brazil, soybean is grown in a wide range of environments (from latitude 33º South to the Equator). Cultivars grown in the Northeast (<10º latitude S), Central (ca. 15º latitude S), and South (ca. 23º latitude S) regions showed an average of 51, 45 and 47% of protein, respectively. Oil content was also high at the lowest latitude.