Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/17/2003
Publication Date: 1/2/2004
Citation: Stern, N.J., Bannov, V.A., Svetoch, E.A., Mitsevich, E.V., Mitsevich, I.P., Volozhantsev, N.V., Gusev, V.V., Perelygin, V.V. 2004. Distribution and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Russian poultry. Journal of Food Protection. 57:239-245. Interpretive Summary: Campylobacter is the most frequently reported bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States and, is also of great significance in Russia. Poultry is thought to be the primary source for humans. We surveyed intestinal materials on 13 broiler chicken, quail, pheasant, peacock, and turkey farms from 8 regions in Russia. 116 isolates were obtained from 370 samples. These isolates were characterized by molecular methods. We also tested for antimicrobial resistance among representative strains. Isolation rates were similar, regardless of whether the birds were from small private or large production farms. Strains tested were sensitive to many antibiotics assayed. In contrast to recently published work in the United States, the strains were also uniformly sensitive to fluoroquinolones. This observation may be related to its limited application in poultry feed within Russia. The molecular analysis provided a measure of strain discrimination among the isolates. The distribution and substantial diversity of Campylobacter appears similar to that previously reported in other countries. The isolates will be used by U.S. and Russian scientists to develop interventions against Campylobacter colonization in poultry.
Technical Abstract: The distribution of Campylobacter spp. on 13 poultry farms from 8 regions in Russia was surveyed. Intestinal materials were plated onto campylobacter selective medium and, plates were incubated microaerobically at 42oC for 24 or 48h. Identification was based upon colonial morphology, microscopical examination, and biochemical tests; latex agglutination assays were used for confirmation. 116 isolates were derived from 370 samples. Isolation rates were similar, regardless of whether the birds were from small private or large production farms. Resistance of 48 representative strains to 38 antimicrobial compounds was determined by disk diffusion assays. All strains tested were sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin, sisomycin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, oleandomycin, erythromycin, azitromycin, and ampicillin. The strains were also sensitive to 100 mg of carbenicillin, fluoroquinolones, and to nitrofurans. Fluoroquinolone sensitivity may be related to its limited application in poultry feed within Russia. Hippurate and ribosomal RNA gene primers distinguished C. jejuni and C. coli, and provided for strain discrimination. The combination of PCR analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing were conducted for selected isolates. The various poultry species and the different locations yielded Campylobacter isolates with discrete RAPD patterns. The distribution and substantial diversity of Campylobacter spp. appears similar to that previously reported in other countries.