Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Germplasm Release
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/31/2005
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: Interpretive Summary: Soybean oil has a short shelf life and it is rapidly develops bad flavors and odors when it is used as a cooking oil. To solve this problem, the vegetable oil industry used a process called hydrogenation to make the oil more stable. Hydrogenation reduces the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linolenic acid, which causes the bad odors and flavors. But the process also produces trans-isomers of oleic acid which have been implicated as a contributor to coronary heart disease. A new soybean germplasm, N98-4445A, developed and released by USDA-ARS, has a naturally high level of oleic acid (56%) and naturally low level of linolenic acid (3%). The oil from this soybean should be very stable under frying applications. N98-4445A is being used by soybean breeders to develop mid-oleic soybean varieties.
Technical Abstract: A soybean germplasm, N98-4445A, with increased concentrations of oleic acid in the seed oil was publicly developed and released by USDA-ARS. This germplasm has oleic acid concentrations of approximately 560 g kg-1 which is 340 to 380 g kg-1 higher than commercial soybean cultivars and 100 g kg-1 higher than the highest oleic acid available in the U.S. Soybean Germplasm Collection. The increased oleic acid is accompanied by a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids. As a result, this line has the added advantage of a linolenic acid concentration less than 30 g kg-1. Higher oleic acid and lower linolenic acid reduces the rate of auto-oxidation and thereby increase the stability of the oil over time and especially in frying applications.