Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/18/2004
Publication Date: 6/15/2004
Citation: Heath, R.R., Midgarden, D.G., Epsky, N.D., Katsoyannos, B. 2004. Efficacy of 1,4 - Diaminobutane (Putrescine) in a Food-Based Synthetic Attractant. J. Econ. Entomol. 97:1126-1131. Interpretive Summary: The Mediterranean fruit fly is the most important pest of fruits and vegetables world wide. Because of the threat of this fruit fly, much emphasis has been placed on the development of 1) trapping systems for detection of and 2) biorational control measures such as sterile insect technology (SIT) for suppression of this pest. Previously, scientists at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station developed three component food-based synthetic chemical lures that can be used in female-targeted trapping systems for pest fruit flies. Field trials were conducted with scientists in Guatemala to determine the importance of putrescine in attraction of Mediterranean and Mexican fruit flies when used with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine. Results indicated that ammonium acetate and trimethylamine was an effective attractant for Mediterranean fruit flies and addition of putrescine should no synergistic effects. Mexican fruit flies where significantly attracted only to lures that contained ammonium acetate and putrescine. The results of this research will provide a significant improvement in our ability to detect Mediterranean and Mexican fruit fly populations and will afford a critical component in the areawide control of this pest.
Technical Abstract: Field trials were conducted in Antigua, Guatemala to determine the effect of deleting 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) from a food-based, female biased synthetic bait used for attracting the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Deletion of putrescine from traps baited with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine showed no significant decrease in capture of C. capitata females when lures were tested in coffee and citrus groves. Traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine only captured significantly fewer female Mediterranean fruit flies than traps baited with either with all three components or with only ammonium acetate and trimethylamine. Traps baited with putrescine and trimethylamine (without ammonium acetate) captured few female Mediterranean fruit flies. Capture of male flies was significantly reduced when either putrescine or trimethylamine was deleted from the three component attractant in studies conducted in coffee. In citrus no differences were seen in trap capture among traps baited with all three components or ammonium acetate and trimethylamine. Similar to results with females, few male flies were captured in traps baited with only putrescine and trimethylamine. In tests conducted in coffee, significantly fewer males were captured with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine and ammonium acetate and putrescine compared to ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine. Few male C. capitata were captured in traps baited without ammonium acetate (only putrescine and trimethylamine). Few female or male A. ludens were captured in citrus in traps containing ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine or ammonium acetate and trimethylamine. No differences in the number of males captured were observed in traps baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine or in traps baited with ammonium acetate and trimethylamine. Trap capture of female and male A. ludens was significantly higher with traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine compared to all treatments tested.