Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/26/2003
Publication Date: 1/20/2004
Citation: Lyon, B.G., Smith, D.P., Lyon, C.E., Savage, E.M. 2004. The effects of diet and feed withdrawal on the sensory descriptive and instrumental profiles of broiler breast fillets. Poultry Science. 83(2):275-281. Interpretive Summary: Production practices can have a significant impact on the quality of poultry meat. Companies invest funds and time to balance the cost of production practices to optimize quality of the ready-to-eat meat product. Two practices that affect cost are feed ingredients for the birds and time off of feed prior to processing. In this study, we used 3 carbohydrate sources (corn, milo, wheat) and 2 times off feed (0 and 8 hours) to determine their significance on the flavor and texture profile of broiler breast meat. The profile was composed of sensory panel and instrumental data. Both feed ingredients and time off feed significantly affected some of the attributes measured. The diet with corn as the major carbohydrate source warrants further study for improving the flavor and texture profile of broiler breast meat.
Technical Abstract: Effects of diet and feed withdrawal times on the sensory and physical characteristics of broiler breast meat were determined. Feeds formulated with three dietary carbohydrate sources (corn, milo, wheat) were fed to broilers starting at 28 d of age. Birds (n=192) were processed between 42 and 52 d of age. Feed was withdrawn for either 0 or 8 h prior to processing in the pilot plant under simulated commercial conditions. Pectoralis major muscles were removed 4 h post-mortem and frozen until evaluated. Breasts were thawed and cooked in heat-seal bags to 80C internal temperature. Sensory profiles (18 attributes) were determined by a trained 8-member panel. W-B shear values were determined on 1.9-cm wide strips. The range of W-B shear values was small but significant for diet. Meat from corn-fed birds required significantly less force to shear (6.0 kg) compared to meat from birds fed either milo (6.7 kg) or wheat (7.1 kg). Feed withdrawal had no effect on the flavor profile whereas diet had a significant effect on two flavor attributes of the breast meat. Breast meat from birds fed the corn diet was significantly (P<0.05) more brothy and sweeter than meat from birds fed either wheat or milo. The sensory texture profile was significantly (P<0.05) affected by both feed withdrawal and diet. Meat from wheat-fed birds was harder, more cohesive, exhibited larger particle size and was more chewy than meat from birds fed either corn or milo. Two texture attributes were significantly affected by feed withdrawal. Meat from birds processed with 0 withdrawal time was lower in moisture release and higher in toothpack than meat from birds held 8 h without feed. Dietary carbohydrate source appears to have a measurable impact on the flavor and texture of broiler breast meat.