Submitted to: Journal of Kansas Entomological Society
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2003
Publication Date: 4/20/2003
Citation: Bancroft, J.S., Smith, M.T., Chaput, E.K., Tropp, J.M. 2003. RAPID TEST OF THE SUITABILITY OF HOST-TREES AND LARVAL HISTORY ON ANOPLOPHORA GLABRIPENNIS (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 75(4):308-316. Interpretive Summary: The Asian longhorn beetle (ALB) is a non-indigenous invasive insect species native to Southeast Asia, and threatens numerous tree species in Europe and North America. There are currently two infestations in the U.S., one in New York and New Jersey, and a second in Illinois. The eradication (total elimination) of ALB from the U.S. requires the survey of all trees known to be attacked or infested by ALB, which are subsequently cut and removed. However, as a recent invader to the U.S., there is limited information regarding what tree species might be attacked by ALB in the U.S. Therefore, the objective of our study was to: (1) determine, among eight tree species commonly found within the U.S. infestation areas, which tree species could serve as host trees for ALB; and (2) develop a rapid screening method that could be used to identify potential hosts of ALB. As such, we inserted ALB larvae into freshly cut logs of the eight tree species, allowed them to feed and develop for one month, and then removed the larvae and determined how much weight the larvae had gained over the one month period. We then compared the weight gain in the larvae from among the eight tree species. We also compared larvae which had originated from China versus those that had originated from the U.S., as well as larvae which had previously fed and developed on twigs versus those that had fed and developed on artificial diet. Results showed that: (1) larvae gained the most weight in species of maple and elm; (2) larvae originating from China and from the U.S. developed (gained weight) at the same rate; and (3) larvae which had previously developed on artificial diet developed (gained weight) at a higher rate than those larvae which had previously developed on twigs. Therefore, these studies: (1) identified several tree species which must be included in surveys for eradication; (2) identified several tree species that may have potential as trap trees (trees in which ALB maybe attracted to but in which larvae are unlikely to develop to adult; and (3) resulted in development of a technique that can be used to rapidly identify additional tree species that are likely to be attacked by ALB and therefore included in the eradication program's survey for infested trees.
Technical Abstract: The invasive cerambycid, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky), is native to Southeast Asia, and threatens numerous species of host trees in Europe and North America. The eradication of breeding populations depends on surveys of host trees, but the identification of the suitabile hosts has not been measured. Our experiment demonstrated a rapid test of the larval weight gain to assess the suitability of eight tree species found in the areas of infestation. We compared weight gain over one month by 80 larvae (40 from China and 40 from Chicago) when reared in freshly cut logs of eight common hardwood species found in the areas of infestation, including: Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple), Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple), Ulmus chinensis Jacq. (Chinese elm / Siberian elm), Ulmus americana L. (American elm), Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (green ash), Fraxinus americana L. (white ash), Gleditsia triacanthos L. (honeylocust), and Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak). From the largest percent weight gain to the smallest, the resulting ranking was U. chinesis, A. platanoides, U. americana, G. triacanthus, A. saccharum, Q. rubra, F. americana and F. pennsylvanica. Although Chinese larvae grew at the same rate as larvae originating from the Chicago infestation, comparisons of previous diet suggested more growth by larvae taken from diet than when reared on twigs. This technique can be used to rapidly quantify host suitability and identify potential trap trees to be used for replanting after removal of infested trees.