|Kline, Daniel - Dan|
Submitted to: Journal of the Mosquito Control Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/26/2002
Publication Date: 3/1/2003
Interpretive Summary: A major emphasis of current pest management research by scientists at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL, is the development of selective, environmentally friendly methods of control. Mosquito control research is no exception. Success will depend upon the development of efficient trapping technology, effective attractants and strategic placement of baited traps for maximum impact on the target population. The present work was undertaken as part of an ongoing effort to develop and evaluate novel trapping technologies. Light attracts some important mosquito species. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an important improvement over standard incandescent bulbs because they produce greater light intensities and require significantly lower amounts of energy (ca. 0.125 ma/h vs 150 ma/h). Blue (450 ± 50 nm) and green (567 ± 50 nm) "super bright" LEDs, oriented upward so that light reflected off the bottom of the aluminum trap lids attracted nearly as many mosquitoes as the standard incandescent bulb. Trap effectiveness was further improved for 6 species by orienting LEDs away from the trap in a 360o pattern. By weight, significantly fewer non-target insects were collected using LEDs compared with the incandescent bulb.
Technical Abstract: Light trap collections of common north central Florida woodland mosquitoes and other haematophagous Diptera were analyzed for attractiveness to different orientations of colored light produced from 'super-bright' green and blue light emitting diodes (LED) (100 nm bandwidth). Adult mosquitoes were sampled using CO2-baited CDC-type traps modified to accommodate the LEDs and compared using a 6 X 6 Latin square design. Treatments evaluated included: (1) green or blue LEDs oriented upward reflecting off the traps aluminum lid (2) green or blue LEDs oriented outward in a 360o pattern and (3) control lights (no light and incandescent bulb). Comparisons by species, detected significant differences in trap collection numbers for only Anopheles crucians s.l., An. quadrimaculatus s.l., Culiseta melanura, Culex (Melanoconion)spp., Psorophora ciliata and Uranotaenia sapphirina. Anopheles crucians and Ur. sapphirina were captured in greatest numbers using the incandescent bulb and both orientations of blue. Culiseta melanura were captured in greatest numbers using any of the light combinations when compared to the no light control. All LED colors and orientations captured more Cx. (melanoconion) spp. than the incandescent and no light controls. Only Ps. ciliata were captured in significantly larger numbers using no light and green LED orientations. Captured species showing no preference for light color or orientation included Ochlerotatus dupreei, Oc. atlanticus/tormentor, Oc. infirmatus, Ps. ferox, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Coquillettidia perturbans. By weight, significantly less non-target insects were collected using LEDs when compared to the incandescent bulb. These results will have potential for use by ecologists, epidemiologists, and mosquito control personnel for improving collection efficiency of certain species of mosquitoes.