Submitted to: Scanning
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2003
Publication Date: 12/1/2003
Citation: Krause, C.R., Reichard, D.L., Zhu, H., Brazee, R.D., Ozkan, H.E., Fox, R.D. 2003. Evaluation of Fan-Pattern Spray Nozzle Wear Using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Scanning. 25:8-10.
Interpretive Summary: Replaceable spray nozzles composed of various materials, shapes and sizes are integral parts of pesticide application systems. Previous studies have shown that nozzle apertures become worn after many hours of use, changing in shape and size. The latter decreases the effectiveness of specific nozzle types to deliver spray to leaves, stems or fruit instead reducing pesticide efficacy. Scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) that produces highly magnified digital images was used. Wear is described as physical change in shape and size of brass and stainless steel nozzle apertures. SEM provides information that contributes to improved nozzle design for manufactures and growers, the end users, thereby enhancing integrated pest management.
Technical Abstract: Worn nozzles on spray equipment severely affect efficiency of crop management system while causing unnecessary pesticide contamination of non-target areas. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis that have been used to directly measure pesticide deposition, was used to observe both worn and unused brass and stainless steel, fan-pattern spray nozzles. Wear patterns and other changes were observed on both nozzle types. SEM provides nozzle manufactures with needed information on nozzle design improving design and enhancing crop protection systems for growers.