Submitted to: Virus Genes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/30/2003
Publication Date: 3/1/2003
Citation: ZANETTI, F., RODRIGUEZ, M., KING, D.J., CAPUA, I., CARILLO, E., SEAL, B.S., BERINSTEIN, A. MATRIX PROTEIN GENE SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS 1 ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM PIGEONS. VIRUS GENES. 2003. 26:2 199-206. Interpretive Summary: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) also designated avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV1) causes an economically important disease of poultry that when outbreaks of virulent forms occur require reporting to the Office of International Epizootes (OIE). The virus may be transmitted to poultry by many different types of birds including pigeons and doves. These isolates from pigeons and doves have been designated pigeon paramyxovirus or PPMV and have been epidemiologically linked to disease among commercial poultry. Therefore, gene sequences for NDV isolates obtained from these bird species were examined. It was determined that a genetically unique form of NDV circulates among pigeons and doves that may potentially cause disease in poultry. Highly virulent forms of NDV were also detected among pigeons and doves. Consequently, pigeons of doves are potential carriers of NDV isolates that may circulate among these bird types, but also may carry other forms of the virus that can be highly virulent to poultry.
Technical Abstract: The matrix protein gene was cloned and sequenced for several recent isolates of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV1). Specifically, isolates from pigeons and doves, members of the Columbidae family were examined. APMV1 is the causative agent of Newcastle disease and the virus is associated with disease among a diverse number of avian species. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from pigeons have also been classified as pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV1). Matrix protein gene sequences for PPMV1 isolates clustered together as a group relative to isolates from other species phylogenetically. However, there were also isolates from pigeons or doves that grouped with APMV1 isolates from other species. This indicates that PPMV1 may be circulating among Columbidae members as a distinct lineage, but that these avian species may also harbor other NDV strains as well. Of particular interest was a dove isolate from Europe that had an aberrant fusion protein cleavage site and was an outlying member phylogenetically between the two major groups of APMV1 isolates.