|Graybosch, Robert - Bob|
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/17/2002
Publication Date: 7/31/2003
Citation: Gang, G., Jackson, D., Graybosch, R.A., Parkhurst, A.M. 2003. Asian salted noodle quality: impact of amylose content adjustments using waxy wheat flour. Cereal Chemistry. Interpretive Summary: For the past century, wheat produced in the winter wheat portion of the Great Plains largely has been used in the production of leavened bakery products such as breads, bagels and hamburger buns. Hard winter wheats also can be used in the production of Asian (wet) noodles. Such products require different quality features than those typically found in bread wheats. Due to a desire to compete more effectively in the Asian market, and due to increased domestic demand for Asian-style noodles, a study was conducted to investigate whether more optimal noodles could be developed from hard winter wheats. Starch is the major component of wheat flour. Typical wheat starch is composed of two types of glucose polymers, amylose and amylopectin. Through use of waxy wheat flours (waxy wheats have a modified starch composed only of amylopectin) various blends were developed ranging in amylose content from <1% to 29%. Optimal amylose concentration for the best noodle texture was found to be in the range of 21-24%. Thus, the use of either partial waxy (reduced amylose) wheats or the use of waxy wheats as a source of flours for blending, could result in the development of wheats or wheat blends ideally suited for the production of Asian salted noodles.
Technical Abstract: Fourteen (14) flour blends of two natural wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flours, `Nuplains¿ and `Centura¿, blended with one waxy flour sample were characterized and processed to Asian salted noodles. The flour amylose content ranged from <1% to 29%. Damaged starch contents were 10.4%, 7.0%, and 6.6% for the waxy wheat, Nuplains, and Centura, respectively. The waxy flour Farinograph water absorption was as high as 79.5%, ¿20% higher than the wild type flours. Because two types of starch granules (wild type and waxy type) existed in the flour blends, two peaks at 82°C (waxy) and 95° C (wild type) were found in the RVA pasting curves. Reduced amylose content caused high flour swelling volume/power and low falling number. Significant effects of flour amylose content on noodle processing and textural/eating qualities were found in the study. Noodle qualities, as reflected in covariate analysis, were not impacted by the flour blend¿s protein content, SDS-sedimentation volume, Mixograph dough development time, or Mixograph tolerance score. The absence of covariate (protein quantity and quality) effects for the food system (flour) used in this study is a very desirable design for the functional studies of starch components. The optimal flour amylose content range for Asian salted noodle products was 21%-24%.