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item Sistani, Karamat
item Pederson, Gary
item Brink, Geoffrey

Submitted to: Agronomy Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/20/2002
Publication Date: 11/13/2002
Citation: Sistani, K.R., Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E. 2002. Nutrient uptake by ryegrass cultivars and crabgrass from a highly phosphorus enriched soil. Agronomy Abstracts. CD-ROM.

Interpretive Summary: Not required.

Technical Abstract: The long-term broiler (chicken) litter application to pastures in broiler growing areas has resulted in the buildup of nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P), in the soil. Broiler producers are using broiler litter in place of chemical fertilizers to grow forages for grazing and haying. Cool-season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and warm season crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) are annual forages commonly grown in the southeast region of the USA, which can be used as an alternative year-round green pasture in a forage-livestock system. We initiated this study to evaluate the P uptake efficiency of five ryegrass cultivars (Marshal, Rio, Jackson, TAM 90, and Gulf) grown during the winter and spring followed by the annual crabgrass (variety Red River) during summer. The experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 growing seasons in Mize, Mississippi, on a highly P enriched Ruston silt loam soil. The ryegrass was grazed during the winter and then harvested once in June. Cultivar Rio produced the greatest dry matter (DM), 2839 and 3043 kg ha-1 in 2000 and 2001, respectively. In 2001, cultivars Gulf and TAM 90 produced more DM than 2000, a very dry year. Crabgrass planted after TAM90 produced significantly greater DM (7565 kg ha-1) than crabgrass following the other ryegrass cultivars in 2001. Cultivar Marshal was the most effective in removing P from soil in 2000 (7.38 kg ha-1), while Rio was superior in 2001 (8.73 kg ha-1). In general, crabgrass was more effective in removing P (33-42 kg ha-1) from soil than ryegrass cultivars tested. However, the combination of ryegrass and crabgrass may provide an effective pasture-livestock system in the southeastern states.