Submitted to: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/20/2003
Publication Date: 8/1/2003
Citation: Turpin, E.A., Lauer, D.C., Swayne, D.E. 2003. Development And Evaluation Of A Blocking Elisa For The Detection Of Type C Avian Metapneumovirus Antibodies In Multiple Avian Species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41(8)p 3579-3583, 2003. Interpretive Summary: Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Until 1997, the US was free from aMPV infection, while Europe, Asia, Central and South America had reported the disease. The sudden appearance of the virus has lead many researches to suggest migratory or other wild birds may be playing a role in the spread of the virus in the US. To determine if wild birds have been infected with aMPV we have developed a test that will determine if the birds have antibodies to the virus. Our test is a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). The test is able to test for the presence of antibodies independent on species tested. We first tested serum samples from experimentally infected animals to set up the test parameters. The assay was then used to test field serum samples from Minnesota, and found to agree (94.9%) with the results from their diagnostic laboratory. These results indicate that our test is able to detect antibodies to aMPV and is validated and ready to test on wild bird sera.
Technical Abstract: The first cases of infection by avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) were described in turkeys with respiratory disease in South Africa during 1978. The causative agent was isolated and identified as a pneumovirus in 1986. The sudden emergence of aMPV in the United States in 1997 has lead many to speculate wild birds are involved in the spread of the virus. To begin to understand the potential role of wild birds in aMPV epidemiology, we have developed and evaluated a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) for the detection of anti-type C aMPV (aMPV-C) antibodies. This assay method overcomes the species-specific platform of indirect ELISAs to allow detection of aMPV-C-specific antibodies from virtually any avian species. The bELISA was initially tested with experimental turkey serum samples and found to correlate with virus neutralization assays and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). One thousand serum samples from turkey flocks in Minnesota were evaluated on our bELISA, and found to agree 94.9% with the results obtained by the iELISA. In addition we were able to show the bELISA was also able to detect anti-aMPV-C antibodies from experimental infected duck serum samples, indicating its usefulness in screening serum samples from other avian species.