Submitted to: Food Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/25/2002
Publication Date: 2/13/2003
Citation: Hinton Jr, A., Ingram, K.D. 2003. Bacterial activity of tripotassium phosphate and potassium oleate on the native flora of poultry skin. Food Microbiology.
Interpretive Summary: The ability of phosphate and potassium oleate solutions to reduce the number of bacteria on poultry skin was determined. Skin from chickens was washed in solutions of phosphate, potassium oleate, or phosphate and oleic acid. The skin was then rinsed, and the number of bacteria in the rinse water was determined. Washing skin in solutions of either phosphate or potassium oleate reduced the number of bacteria recovered in water used to rinse the skin. The fewest number of bacteria were recovered from water used to rinse the skin that had been washed in mixtures containing both phosphate and potassium oleate, however. Solutions of phosphate and potassium oleate also reduced the number of bacteria that remained attached to the skin. Other experiments indicated that phosphate and potassium oleate killed different groups of bacteria associated with chicken skin. Findings indicate that mixtures of phosphates and potassium oleate can be used to reduce the number of bacteria found on poultry skin.
Technical Abstract: The ability of solutions of tripotassium phosphate and potassium oleate to reduce the population of the native bacterial flora of poultry skin was examined. Skin from commercial broiler carcasses was washed in solutions of tripotassium phosphate, potassium oleate, or tripotassium phosphate and oleic acid then rinsed in peptone water. Aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci in the rinsates and the washed skin were enumerated on the appropriate bacteriological media. Washing skin in solutions of K3PO4 significantly reduced the number of Enterobacteriaceae and Campylobacter recovered from rinsates of poultry skin, but did not effect the number of aerobic bacteria and enterococci recovered. Washing poultry skin in mixtures containing both K3PO4 and potassium oleate significantly reduced the number of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter, and enterococci recovered in samples of skin rinsates and in blended suspensions of skin. In vitro inhibition studies showed that K3PO4 is primarily bactericidal towards Gram negative bacteria, while potassium oleate is bactericidal toward Gram positive bacteria. Findings indicate that mixtures of phosphates and fatty acids are effective bactericides that can reduce the number of bacteria found on poultry skin.