Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/17/2002
Publication Date: 11/17/2002
Citation: SOMMERS, C.H., FAN, X. IRRADIATION (GAMMA) OF FINE EMULSION SAUSAGE THAT CONTAINTED SODIUM DIACETATE.. JOURNAL OF FOOD PROTECTION. 2002. V. 66(5). P. 819-824. Interpretive Summary: Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen, is a common contaminant on ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products such as frankfurters and bologna. Ionizing radiation can eliminate L. monocytogenes from RTE meats. Sodium diacetate (SDA), an antibacterial compound, can be included as an additive in RTE meat products. The effect of ionizing radiation, in combination with SDA, on the survival of L. monocytogenes was determined. Sodium diacetate increased the radiation sensitivity of L. monocytogenes in frankfurters and bologna and prevented the growth of the microorganism during long-term refrigerated storage. The effect of ionizing radiation and SDA on RTE meat quality factors including lipid oxidation, color, and firmness was minimal. The meat processing industry will benefit from the more efficient methodology for elimination of L. monocytogenes and consumers will benefit from a safer RTE meat product.
Technical Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters and bologna. Ionizing radiation can eliminate L. monocytogenes from ready-to-eat meats. Sodium diacetate (SDA) inhibits the growth of L. monocytogenes when incorporated into fine emulsion sausages such as bologna or frankfurters. L.monocytogenes was reduced greater than 9 log10 in the presence of 0.125 percent sodium diacetate solution that was exposed to 1.5 kGy of ionizing radiation. The D-10 values, the ionizing radiation dose required to reduce the L. monocytogenes population by 90 percent, were 0.58, 0.59, 0.57, and 0.53 kGy when suspended in emulsion that contained 0, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 percent SDA, respectively. The D-10 values for L. monocytogenes surface-inoculated onto frankfurters dipped in 0, 0.125, 0.25 or 0.5 percent SDA solutions were 0.58, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.52 kGy, respectively. Inhibition of L. monocytogenes post-irradiation growth (9 degrees centigrade) in beef bologna emulsion was dependent on SDA concentration and ionizing radiation dose. Very small, but statistically significant, changes in bologna redness, lipid oxidation, and shear force were observed for beef bologna emulsion at the highest SDA concentration (0.5 percent) and irradiation dose (3.0 kGy). SDA can inhibit the proliferation of L. monocytogenes that survive the irradiation process with minimal impact on fine emulsion sausage color, lipid oxidation and firmness when used within regulatory limits.