Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2002
Publication Date: 9/1/2003
Citation: Bulaga, L.L., Garber, L., Senne, D.A., Myers, T.J., Good, R., Wainwright, S., Trock, S., Suarez, D.L. Epidemiologic And Surveillance Studies On Avian Influenza In Live-Bird Markets In New York And New Jersey, Avian Diseases 47:996-1001, 2003.
Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza is a viral disease of chickens and turkeys that can cause serious disease. Since 1994 a H7N2 influenza virus has infected poultry in the live bird markets in Northeast U.S. In an effort to better understand how the virus maintains itself in the live bird markets, a study of all the live bird markets in New York and New Jersey was undertaken. The study was designed to find risk factors for why some markets almost always had influenza in birds in the market and why some markets almost never had influenza in the market. A survey was conducted at each ,market asking a series of questions about what types of birds were in the market, how often they cleaned the markets, etc. The birds in the markets were also tested for influenza by two different tests. The highest risk for influenza was for markets that were open seven days a week and for markets that sold rabbits. Markets with the lowest risk of influenza were closed at least one day of the week and cleaned and disinfected daily.
Technical Abstract: In 2001, all 109 retail live-bird markets (LBMs) in New York and New Jersey were surveyed for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) by a real time reverse transcriptase-polymer chain reaction assay (RRT-PCR) and results compared to virus isolation (VI) in embryonating chicken eggs. The RRT-PCR had a 91.9% sensitivity and 97.9% specificity in detecting presence of AIV at the market level. Therefore, RRT-PCR is a reliable method to identify AIV-positive LBMs. In addition, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of the LBMs showed that, during the past 12 months, markets that were open seven days per week and those that also sold rabbits had the highest risk for being positive for AIV. Markets that were closed one or more days per week and those that performed daily cleaning and disinfecting had the lowest risk for being AIV-positive.