Submitted to: Annual Conference on Vaccine Research
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2002
Publication Date: 5/6/2002
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2002. Vaccination Against Respiratory Diseases Of Poultry: Avian Influenza And Newcastle Disease. Annual Conference on Vaccine Research.
Technical Abstract: In the USA each year, 8.2 billion commercial chickens are vaccinated against common respiratory pathogens such as Newcastle disease (ND) virus, a paramyxovirus type 1, and infectious bronchitis virus, a coronavirus. Most commercial poultry are vaccinated through mass immunization programs utilizing live virus vaccines typically given by aerosol spray or drinking water application. However, some inactivated whole virus or recombinant vaccines are used and are administered by injection of individual birds. Vaccination against avian influenza (AI) virus, a type A orthomyxovirus, is uncommon. Most ND and AI viruses produce low virulent respiratory or reproductive syndromes while a few high virulent strains cause high mortality systemic disease. The latter, velogenic ND and highly pathogenic AI, are exotic to the USA and impact international trade in poultry and poultry products. The ND and AI vaccines protect against all clinical forms. Various vaccines technologies are effective in immunization against AI and include conventional inactivated AI vaccines, vectored viruses, subunit proteins and DNA vaccines. These vaccines protect from clinical signs and death, and reduce replication of field virus with a homologous hemagglutinin subtype. Currently, inactivated whole AI virus vaccines and a fowl pox vectored vaccine with AI H5 hemagglutinin gene insert are used commercial in various countries of the world. Since 1995, over 1.2 billion doses of inactivated H5N2 vaccine and 500 million doses of recombinant fowlpox-AI H5 vaccine have been used in Mexico in chickens. Hemagglutinin subunit protein, DNA and recombinant ND virus-AI hemagglutinin gene insert vaccines show potential as the next generation of AI vaccines.