Submitted to: Nutrition Reviews
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2001
Publication Date: 2/1/2002
Citation: ZOICO, E., ROUBENOFF, R. THE ROLE OF CYTOKINES IN REGULATING PROTEIN METABOLISM AND MUSCLE FUNCTION. NUTRITION REVIEWS. 60(2):39-51,2002. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Multiple lines of evidence suggest that cytokines influence different physiological functions of skeltal muscle cells, including anabolic and catabolic processes and programmed cell death. Thus, cytokines play an important role not only in muscle homeostasis, but also in the pathogenesis of different relevant clinical conditions characterized by alteration in protein metabolism. Recently discovered cytokines, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and growth/differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8 or myostatin), as well as the more studied tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the interferons (INFs), have been implicated in the regulation of muscle protein turnover. Their post-receptor signaling pathways, proteolytic systems, and the mechanisms of protein synthesis inhibition involved in different catabolic conditions have been partially clarified. Moreover, recent studies have shown that cytokines can directly influence skeletal muscle contractility, independently of changes in muscle protein content. These observations, even though several gaps remain in our understanding, may be useful in the future development of strategies of control of protein metabolism and muscle function in different clinical conditions.