Submitted to: OIE Scientific and Technical Review: Contamination of Animal Products
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/10/2002
Publication Date: 12/1/2002
Citation: GRUBMAN, M.J., MASON, P.W. PROSPECTS, INCLUDING TIME FRAMES, FOR IMPROVED FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VACCINES. OIE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL REVIEW: CONTAMINATION OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS. Vol 21: 589-600, 2002
Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccines produced by chemical inactivation of virus are available, but there are concerns about their safety because it has been demonstrated that disease outbreaks have been caused by improper inactivation and escape of infectious virus from vaccine emanufacturing centers. In addition it is difficult to distinguish serologically infected animals and animals vaccinated with chemically inactivated vaccine. Because of the recent outbreaks of FMD in previously FMD-free countries, the need to be able to rapidly respond to disease outbreaks is of great concern to many countries. In this chapter, we discuss alternative vaccine strategies and in particular the use of a viral subunit approach. We discuss the advantages of this approach and methods of delivering an empty capsid immunogen. We have developed human adenovirus as san expression vector and discuss this system as a vaccine candidate in swine and bovines. We also discuss a combination antiviral and vaccine approach to rapidly control disease outbreaks in emergency situations.
Technical Abstract: Inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines have been successfully used as part of eradication programs. However, there are a number of concerns with their use and the recent outbreaks of FMD in disease-free countries have increased the need for improved FMD control strategies. To address this need, new generation FMD vaccines are being developed. Currently, one of the most promising of these vaccine candidates utilizes an empty viral capsid subunit delivered to animals by a live virus vector. This candidate, a replication-defective recombinant human adenovirus containing the capsid and 3C proteinase coding regions of FMDV, induces an FMDV-specific neutralizing antibody response in inoculated animals. Upon challenge with a virulent animal-passaged homologous virus, swine and cattle vaccinated with this recombinant adenovirus are protected from clinical signs of FMD as well as from FMDV replication. One inoculation of a high dose of this vaccine candidate was able to protect swine from challenge as early as 7 days after vaccination.