Submitted to: Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/25/2003
Publication Date: 2/1/2004
Citation: Champagne, C.M., Bogle, M.L., McGee, B.B., Yadrick, K., Allen, R.H., Kramer, T.R., Simpson, P., Gossett, J., Weber, J. 2004. Dietary intake in the Lower Mississippi Delta region: Results from the Foods Of Our Delta Study. Journal Of The American Dietetic Association. 104(2):199-207. Interpretive Summary: A telephone survey was conducted in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of AR, LA, and MS. This survey was completed to determine the food intake in a representative sample of persons living in a 36 county area of the LMD. Approximately 1750 adults and 480 children were interviewed. The interview asked each participant what he or she had eaten in the last twenty-four hours. These data were then compared to data collected in the USDA, Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII) 1994- 1996, 1998, which was a representative sample of the US. Total energy or caloric intake in the LMD was not different from the CSFII. However, sources of calories and other nutrients did differ. The percent of calories consumed from total fat was 2% higher in the LMD. Meat intake was higher in the LMD, which may account for the higher total fat. Average daily servings of fruits and vegetables were significantly lower (P<.0001) in the LMD than reported for the US in the CSFII. Milk and dairy products were also consumed in lesser amounts in the LMD. Nutrition intervention strategies targeting increases in fruits, vegetables and dairy products are being planned which would improve food choices and impact healthy weights in the LMD.
Technical Abstract: Objective: To collect and evaluate food intake data from a culturally diverse population and compare with national survey data. Design: The Foods Of Our Delta Study was a baseline, cross-sectional survey that utilized random-digit dialing methodology to identify the sample. Food intake was obtained from a 24-hour dietary recall administered by computer-assisted telephone interview using the multiple-pass method. Subjects/Setting: One thousand seven hundred fifty-one adults and 485 children in the Lower Mississippi Delta (Delta) of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Statistical Analyses Performed: Comparisons of subsets within the Delta were made using weighted t tests. Comparisons of the Delta with the overall US population from the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and with the Dietary Reference Intakes were made using independent sample z tests of weighted estimates. Results: Energy intake did not differ between the Delta and the US populations. Intakes of protein were lower, fat higher, and certain micronutrients lower in Delta adults than in US adults. Delta adults had a 20% lower intake of fruits and vegetables than the US adults and generally poorer adherence to recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid. African American Delta adults generally consumed less-optimal diets than white Delta adults. Delta children had diets similar to children of the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals sample population, but lower intakes were noted for vitamins A, C, riboflavin, and B-6, and for calcium and iron. Applications/Conclusions: Data such as these will help drive intervention development in this rural region and perhaps set the stage for research in similarly impoverished areas.